# Map Elements - Arjumand Zaidi

MAP SCALE Sizing the the Model Model Sizing Map Scale Ratio of a single unit of distance on map to the corresponding distance measured on the surface of the ground Gives idea of area covered Example:

If Then the Map scale = 1:24,000 1 unit of measurement on map represents 24,000 of the same units on the surface of ground Scale Three types of scale depictions: Verbal: Numeric 1/24,000

One Inch equals One Mile Ratio: 1:24,000, Fractional: Graphic 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4

Miles Map Scale How to Calculate Corresponding Distance on Ground Example: Map Scale = 1:200,000 Given Map distance = 3 cm Required x = Equivalent distance on ground The above scale defines that 1 cm on map = 200,000 cm on ground 1/200,000 = 3/x x = 600,000 cm or 6 KM on ground Quiz

Question: Map Scale = 1:24,000 800 ft on ground = ________inch on map? Large Scale vs. Small Scale Refer to scale shown as a fraction Large means small denominator and small means larger denominator Q: which map has a larger scale 1:1000 OR 1:25,000?

Why larger? shows the features at a larger and more detailed size Large Scale Map In larger scaled maps more details but less area covered (for a fix size) Relatively detail small portion is covered with higher local Usually

maps that are 1:24,000 or larger are considered large scale** ** http://www.esri.com/industries/k-12/PDFs/intrcart.pdf Large Scale Scale 1: 3,000 Small Scale Map Relatively large area of Earth is covered In a smaller scaled map certain features might be

omitted Detail at global level with limited local detail Usually maps 1:250,000 or smaller are considered small scale** Any map with scale between large and small scale is intermediate scale maps ** http://www.esri.com/industries/k-12/PDFs/intrcart.pdf Small Scale

Scale 1: 1000000 Medium Scale Scale 1: 200,000 Large Scale vs. Small Scale # # ## # ## # # # # ##

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# # # # # Map Scale Selection use Select Scale of a scale depends on its intended a scale which is convenient to handle

will change appropriately as paper scale changes MAP DESIGNING Optimal Representation Representation of of Optimal Spatial Information Information Spatial Mapping Prerequisites Keep the following points in mind before designing a Map Purpose of the map (remember the message)

Context of the map Potential users Available resources (data and tools) Important features which need to be highlighted and less important in the background (not prominent)

Design elements needed to properly communicate the message Format of the final project Map Designing Map Designing Steps Determine Decide Plan on the data layers to be included a layout

Select only the area of interest Choose Map 1 the objectives of the map colors and symbols should also look good in black and white out of 10 people are color blind Printing Use

in black and white low saturation colors in background Create the map Selection of Layers Most important layers = clearest and largest symbols! Some ancillary layers help reader to orient themselves

Too many ancillary layers can drown out your message Make the representation of some ancillary layers less prominent Use: smaller symbols smaller text transparency, etc. Typography (Labeling) Simple Make and brief but accurate

sure text is legible Placement should least obscure underlying information Font size hierarchy to indicate relative importance Use no more than four fonts or text sizes on a map Label outside area only if the purpose is to show the orientation of the study area

Legibility of Text Typeface Easy and clear to read Size Readable size Color Sufficient Line

contrast between background and letters Length Longer Leading lines are difficult to read (space between two lines) Legibility may be increased by increasing the leading between rows of text Legibility (readability) of Text Source: http://www.kristinlong.com/Typography.pdf

Typography Traditionally (Conti..) plain font for land and italic font for water features Label spread out along the feature Several labeling styles available Typography (Labeling) Scale Scale 1:1:200,000 10,000

Bad Maps Poor symbols, poor color, poor design, hard to read, poor legends Map Types 1. Planimetric (e.g municipal base map) A map designed to portray the horizontal positions of features; vertical information is specifically ignored. 2. Topographic (e.g. USGS 7.5 minute quads) A map designed to portray features on the surface of the Earth, including relief (elevation), hydrography, and cultural features 3. Cadastral (e.g municipal parcel map) A map representing boundaries of land parcels, ownership, land use, valuation, and other related information. 4. Image (e.g LANDSAT image map) A map representing a remotely sensed picture or reflection of all or part of the Earth's surface

5. Thematic A map used to visualize spatial relationships and patterns among information pertaining to some theme or concept Reference: Ron Brigg UT Dallas Representation of Thematic Maps Choropleth map: uses zones or polygons to display information using shading, dot, density, or other techniques. e.g population change, ethnicity distribution Proximal (dasymetric) map:

shows zones of constant attributes, such as soil type or vegetation (similar to choropleth except that data determines boundary lines; no predefined polygons) e.g. zoning, soil map Isopleth map (contour or isarithmic): shows a continuous three dimensional surface such as elevation using lines connecting points of equal value (contours). e.g elevation, travel time contours from a point(s), land values, income Point (dot) or symbol map:

shows information relating to specific points using marker symbols whose size and/or frequency relates to magnitude of phenomena housing sales, code violations, crimes Reference: Ron Brigg UT Dallas Source:pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm11c2/images/coverphoto.jpg Other Thematic Maps Single Single symbol maps symbol used for all features Unique

value maps Different symbols or colors for each category or value Which Map suites to what data types? Nominal data_________ Single symbol maps Categorical Ordinal Interval data_______ Unique values map

data __________ Unique values map and Ratio data__ Quantities map (graduated color, graduated symbol, dot density) Data Classification It is a key method of abstracting reality into simplified map Method of classification effects the look of the map Classification should match data distribution Distribution of zones into classes Max of 6 number of classes recommended (such that reader can interpret between them) Classification Options Natural Breaks

Quantiles Equal Interval Standard Deviation References http://www.kristinlong.com/Typography.pdf http://www.state.nj.us/dep/gis/training/scaleaccurlayout.ppt Introduction to Geographical Sciences, Training Lectures and Presentations Prepared by National Center for Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics (NCRG) Karachi (undated) GIS Cartography: A Guide to Effective Map Design by Gretchen N. Peterson, 2009

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