Where have we been, and where are we going? Why should we study the marine habitat? Marine life provides different resources Widely used for recreation and essential in many coastal economies
Problems created by the marine environment Problems created by man The History of Marine Biology
Man has been attracted to the ocean since the Stone Age The History of Marine Biology Aristotle
Lived in the 4th century B.C. (considered the first marine biologist) The History of Marine Biology
Aristotle Described many forms of marine life Created a simplified naming system During the 9th and 10th century Vikings (Leif Eriksson) explored much of the North
Atlantic Ben Franklin: charted the Gulf Stream 1770 As navigation skills improved so did our knowledge of the environment
James Cook James Cook was one of the first captains to make scientific observations Carried an accurate chronometer and a full-time naturalist
In 3 voyages he explored all of the worlds oceans Killed in 1779 by native Hawaiians Through his example in the 19th century most ships carried
naturalists James Cook James Cook Artists rendition of the death of Capt. Cook by native
Hawaiia ns Francesco Bartolozzi and William Byrne The death of Captain Cook Charles Darwin
In 1831, the H.M.S. Beagle sailed around the world for 5 years carrying Charles Darwin What are Darwins notable contributions to science and marine biology? Charles Darwin
Atoll Reefs and Barnacles Darwin collected and studied numerous marine organisms during this famous voyage, which eventually lead to his famous subsidence theory of coral reef formation (for atolls), and a classification of barnacles that is still useful today. Observations he made on the Beagle expedition also provided him with the ideas that he later used to formulate his theory of
evolution and natural selection. Edward Forbes (18151854) One of the first true marine biologists Naturalist on the Beacon and sampled the bottom using a dredge
Discovered that animal density decreased with depth and that species diversity changes with depth Up to this point it was believed that no life existed in the oceans depths The British are Coming!!
In 1872 the British government funded the first major oceanographic expedition under the leadership of Charles Wyville Thompson A light warship, the Challenger was used It took 19 years and 50 volumes to publish all the results
4,700 new species were discovered New standards were set in studying the ocean. Meticulous records were kept and careful measurements were taken Challenger
HMS Challenger Voyage ALL OVER THE WORLD! Marine Labs *First Lab was established in 1872 by German scientists in Naples Italy Marine Laboratories
Marine labs were created at the shore to tackle long term studies of the marine habitat The first major American lab was
the Woods Hole lab in Massachusetts http://www.whoi.edu/home/ Another important lab was created in Pacific Grove, California. The Scripps Institute http://www-sio.ucsd.edu/ These and many other marine labs are crucial in
the growth of marine biology today Woods Hole Institute World War II and the development of SONAR 1960 - Trieste bathyscaphe dive United States and
Swiss team made the deepest manned dive (to 10,916 meters depth) in the Mariana Trench. It took 5 hours to fall 7 miles
At this depth, the pressure is over 8 tons per square inch. Marine Biology Today The description of animals and the general picture of marine biology is
now well understood Marine biologist are concerned with why patterns exist and how animals live Marine Biology Today Because of advances in technologies new areas are able to be
explored Alvin Submersibles (Alvin) and ROVs are used to explore the deep sea and hydrothermal vents
ROV Remotely Operated vehicle Aquarius Habitat UNCWs Center for Marine Science http://uncw.edu/cms/ Coastal Studies Institute
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