MATH 1330 Section 4.2 Parts of an angle An angle is formed by two rays that have a common endpoint (vertex). One ray is the initial side and the other is the terminal side. We typically will draw angles in the coordinate plane with the initial side

along the positive x axis. Naming and Degree Measure of Angles Common Angles

Radian Measure of an Angle The second method is called radian measure. One complete revolution is 2. The problems in this section are worked in radians. Radians are a unit free measurement. Suppose I draw a circle from the center and construct an angle by drawing rays from the center of the circle to two different points on the circle in such a way that the length

of the arc intercepted by the two rays is the same as the radius of the circle. The measure of the central angle thus formed is one radian. Measure of 1 Radian The Radian Measure of an Angle Place the vertex of the angle at the center of

a circle of radius r. Let s denote the length of the arc intercepted by the angle. The radian measure, , of the angle is the ratio of the arc length s to the radius r. In symbols, . In this definition it is assumed that s and r have the same linear units. You can also solve the previous formula in the form s = r

Angle Measure Notations One radian measure is the measure of the central angle (vertex of the angle is at the center of the circle) of a circle that intercepts an arc equal in length to the radius of the circle. If an angle has a measure of 2.5 radians, we write = 2.5 radians or = 2.5. There should be no confusion as to whether radian or degree

measure is being used. If has a degree measure of, say, 2.5 we must write = 2.5o and not = 2.5. Example 1: A circle has radius12 inches. A central angle intercepts an arc of length 36 inches. What is the radian measure of the central angle?

Relationship between Degrees and Radians How can we obtain a relationship between degrees and radians? We compare the number of degrees and the number of radians in one complete rotation in a circle. We know that 360o is all the way around a circle. The length of the intercepted arc is equal to the circumference of

the circle. Therefore, the radian measure of this central angle is the circumference of the circle divided by the circles radius, r. The circumference of a circle of a radius r is 2r. Conversion between Units We use the formula for radian measure to find the radian measure of the360o angle. We know that the circumference of a circle is 2r. So in

this case, s = 2r. So the radian measure of a central angle in the case of a complete a complete revolution: Conversion between Degrees and Radians Popper 2: Convert each angle in

degrees to radians. 1. 150o a. 3/8 b. 2/3 c. 5/6 d. 3/4 2. -135o

a. -3/8 b. -2/3 c. -5/6 d. -3/4 Popper 2: Convert each angle in radians to degrees 3.

a. 30o 4. a. -30o b. 45o

c. 60o b. -260o d. 90o c. -300o

d. -330o Common Radian Measures Sectors: A portion of a circle: a circle of radius r, the area A of a sector

In with central angle of radian measure is given by: Example 5: Example 6: Find the perimeter of a sector with central angle

60o and radius 3 m. To find the area of a sector of a circle, think of the sector as simply a fraction of the circle. If the central angle 360o defining the sector is given in degrees, then we can use the following formula: Example 7: Use the formula above

to find the area of a sector, where = 315 and r = 4 cm. Linear and Angular Velocity (Speed) Consider a merry-go-round. The ride travels in a circular motion. Some of the horses are right along the edge of the

merry-go-round, and some are closer to the center. If you are on one of the horses at the edge, you will travel farther than someone who is on a horse near the center. But the length of time that both people will be on the ride is the same. If you were on the edge, not only did you travel farther, you also traveled faster. However, everyone on the merry-go-round travels

through the same number of degrees (or radians). There are two quantities we can measure from this, linear velocity and angular velocity. Linear Versus Angular Velocity The linear velocity of a point on the rotating object is the distance per unit of time that the point travels along its circular path. This distance

will depend on how far the point is from the axis of rotation (for example, the center of the merry-go-round). We denote linear velocity by v. Using the definition above, , where s is the arclength (s = r). Linear Versus Angular Velocity

The angular velocity of a point on a rotating object is the number of degrees (or radians or revolutions) per unit of time through with the point turns. This will be the same for all points on the rotating object. We let the Greek letter (omega) represent angular velocity. Using the definition above, . Linear Speed in Terms of Angular Speed :

We can establish a relationship between the two kinds of speed by dividing both sides of the arc length formula, s = r, by t. The linear velocity, v, of a point a distance r from the center of rotation is given by , where is the angular velocity in radians per unit of time.

Example 8: If the speed of a revolving gear is 25 rpm (revolutions per minute), a. Find the number of degrees per minute through which the gear turns. b. Find the number of radians per minute through which the gear turns.

Popper 2 (Cont): A car has wheels with a 10 inch radius. If each wheels rate of turn is 4 revolutions per second, 5. Find the angular speed in units of radians/second. a. 2 b. 4 c. 8

d. 0.5 6. How fast (linear speed) is the car moving in units of inches/second? a. 10 b. 80 c. 5/4 d. 2