Medical Terminology Unit 2 Surgical Suffixes, Hematology, and Diagnostic Imaging Suffix for Cutting Tomos = Cutting (Greek) Tom = word root for cut -tome = cutting instrument -tomy = to cut into (incise) -ectomy = to cut out (excise)
Tom/e = cut -y is a noun suffix Ect/o = outside -ostomy = to form a new opening (surgical) Os = mouth, openine Suffix for Cutting Example: -tome = cutting instrument Derm/a/tome -tomy = to cut into (incise) Gastr/o/tomy -ectomy = to cut out
Duoden/ectomy (excise) -ostomy = to form a new Col/ostomy opening (surgical) -ectomy vs. -ostomy Gastr/ectomy: the stomach Ect/o = combining form meaning outside Tom/e = combining form meaning cut -y = noun suffix
One t is dropped when tome is preceded by ect. Gastr/ostomy: cutting Excision (removal) of all or part of New opening made in stomach by Os = combining form for mouth, opening Tom/e = combining form meaning cut
-y = noun suffix -ostomy = Forming a New Opening Gastr/o/duoden/o/stomy: Forming a new opening between the stomach and duodenum. Surgical procedure where natural connection between the duodenum and stomach is removed and new connection is formed. -tomy = Incision Into Duoden/o/tomy:
Incision into the duodenum Derm/a/tome = An instrument that cuts skin Tom/o/graphy = A process that makes images of slices (planes) of the body Gastr/o = Stomach Excision of the stomach Incision into the stomach Make a surgical opening
in the stomach (i.e. to insert a feeding tube) Gastr/ectomy Gastr/o/tomy Gastr/ostomy Note: The combining form is not used when the suffix begins with a vowel
Gastr/o = Stomach Gaster = Stomach (Greek) Gastr/itis: Inflammation of the stomach Gastr/o/megaly: Enlargement of the stomach Megal/o/gastr/ia: Enlargement of the stomach -ia = Condition Gastritis Duoden/o = Duodenum
Duoden/um (noun) = First part of the small intestine that connects with the stomach Gastr/o/duoden/ostomy = Forming a new opening between the stomach and duodenum. Used to bypass obstruction in between stomach and duodenum Duoden/o/tomy = incision into the duodenum Duoden/ostomy = Forming a new opening into the duodenum Duoden/itis = Inflammation of duodenum
-al = Pertaining to (Adjective Suffix) Duoden/al: (Adj.) Pertaining to duodenum Examples: duodenal ulcer, duodenal lesion -al or ic = (adjective) pertaining to Duoden/o Duoden/al
Gastr/o Duodenal ulcer Gastr/ic Gastric lesion -graph = To Write or Record From
Greek verb graphein, meaning to write or record Refers to an instrument used to record data Tom/o/graph is an x-ray instrument used to show tissue or organs in one plane or slice -gram = Record or Picture Gramma = something written or drawn -gram = suffix for something written or drawn. Used in medical terms to refer to a record or picture made by an instrument. Tom/o/gram: An X-ray picture made by a tomograph
-gram = A record or picture made by an instrument Tomogram, electrocardiogram -graph = Instrument used to record data Tomograph, electrocardiograph Graphein = to write or record (Greek)
-graphy = The process of making a picture Tomography, electrocardiography -grapher = A person who records the data Radiographer Tomography A
radiographic procedure that uses X-rays to produce images of a slice or plane of the body. MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging CT: Computed Tomography PET: Positron Emission Tomography SPECT: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography -algia = Pain Cardi/algia: Heart pain
Gastr/algia: Pain in the stomach Since algia starts with a vowel, word root is used rather than the combining form. Cardi/o (card/o) = Heart Cardi/o/megaly: Enlarged heart Megal/o/cardia also means enlargement or overdevelopment of the heart. (not used often) Cardiac enlargement (CE) Card/itis: Inflammation of the heart Cardi/o/logist: A specialist in the study of disease of the heart Cardi/o/logy: The study of heart
Cardi/o (card/o) = Heart Cardiac (or Coronary) Care Unit (CCU) Electr/o/cardi/o/gram (EKG or ECG): Record of electrical waves given off by the heart Electr/o/cardi/o/graph: The instrument used to record electrocardiogram Electr/o/cardi/o/graphy: The process of making a recording of EKG/ECG using electricity Son/o = Sound Sonus = Sound (Latin) Son/o/gram: A picture made using sound
waves (ultrasound) with sonograph Son/o/graphy: The process of obtaining the sonogram. Also called Ultrasonography. Son/o/graph/er: The person who performs sonography (technician). Sonogram is officially READ by a radiologist. Ech/o Ech/o means sound made by reflected sound waves. Ech/o/cardi/o/gram: A record of sound waves reflected through the heart Ech/o/cardi/o/graphy: The process of making
the echocardiogram using sound waves Radi/o = Radiation Radius = Ray coming from a central point (Latin) Radi/o/gram: A picture made by using Xrays (XR) Note: In practice, this is usually called a radiograph.
Radi/o/graph: Instrument used to produce the radiogram or the X-ray film Radi/o/grapher: One who takes X-rays Radi/o = Radiation Radi/o/logist: A physician specialist who studies (interprets) X-rays Radiation Therapists (RATx) use X-rays to irradiate a cancerous area Registered Radiologic Technologists (RT[R]) use ionizing radiation (X-rays) to create images for diagnostic interpretation by radiologists.
Path/o = Disease Path/o/logy: The study of disease or the cause of disease Path/o/logist: A physician specializing in diagnosing (discovering) diseases -pathy = Disease Dermat/o/pathy: Disease condition of the skin Eti/o/logy = The study of the cause of the disease
Jaundice Jaundice is a yellow appearance of a skin caused by a reflection of bright yellow color through the blood plasma. Plasma gets a bright yellow color when a person has a high blood bilirubin level. Examples: Viral
hepatitis A, B, or C Neonatal jaundice Cirrhosis of the liver Colors Leuk/o Melan/o Erythr/o Cyan/o Chlor/o Xanth/o White Black (dark pigment) Red Blue Green
Yellow Colors Blue skin Red skin White skin (vitiligo) Yellow skin Black (discolored skin) Cyan/o/derma Erythr/o/derma Leuk/o/derma Xanth/o/derma
Melan/o/derma -osis = Condition -osis means disease, condition, status, or process Cyan/osis = condition of blueness Dermat/osis = condition of the skin Dermat/o/cyan/osis or Cyan/o/derma = condition of blueness of the skin -tic = pertaining to
-osis (noun) Cyan/osis Acr/o/cyan/osis -tic (adjective) Cyan/o/tic Acr/o/cyan/o/tic -cyte = Cell Chlor/o/cyte: A green cell (in plants)
Melan/o/cyte: Black cell (dark pigmented) Leuk/o/cyte: White (blood) cell Erythr/o/cyte: Red (blood) cell. Contains a red substance called hemoglobin. -blast = Embryonic, Immature Cell Leuk/o/blast: An embryonic white cell Melan/o/blast: An embryonic black (dark pigment) cell Erythr/o/blast: An embryonic red cell
Blast/o = (combining form) embryonic or immature cell Blast/o/cyte: An embryonic cell Blast: A cell in its embryonic stage Note: An embryonic white cell is NOT leukoblastocyte. You choose either blast or cyte when has another combining form in front. -emia = Blood Condition Hema = Blood (Greek) An/emia: Lack of blood Xanth/emia: Yellow blood condition (jaundice) Erythr/emia: Red blood condition (polycythemia) Chlor/emia: Green blood condition (increased
chlorine in the blood) Chlorosis is a condition in which the skin takes on a greenish tinge due to anemia Erythema Abnormal flushing of skin caused by dilation of capillaries Abnormally red blood condition Erythremia due to too many erythrocytes Erythroderma Redness of the skin
Cyt/o = Cells A cell is the smallest structural unit of all living organisms. Cyt/o/logy: The study of cells Cyt/o/logist: The one who studies cells or the cause of diseases of the cell. Cyt/o/techn/o/logists: Technicians who prepare and screen human tissue slides to detect abnormalities of the cells. They are usually supervised by pathologists. -meter, -metry -meter = An instrument used to measure or
count something Cyt/o/meter: The instrument used to count cells -metry = The process of measuring or counting something Cyt/o/metry: The process of counting cells Blood Cells and Platelets Red Blood Cells (RBC): Erythrocytes White Blood Cells (WBC): Leukocytes Granular leukocytes Eosinophils Neutrophils Basophils
Agranular leukocytes Monocytes Lymphocytes: Thrombocytes T cells, B cells, Plasma cells (Platelets): Thromb/o = blood clot Wandering macrophages (Phagocytes) -penia = Decrease, Not Enough Means
poverty Leuk/o/cyt/o/penia (leukopenia): Decrease in or not enough white blood cells Thromb/o/cyt/o/penia: Abnormal decrease in the number of clot-forming cells (thrombocytes) Erythr/o/cyt/o/penia: Decrease in red blood cells -osis = Condition of increased number -osis may be used to indicate an increase in numbers of blood cells. Leuk/o/cytosis: Increase in white blood cells Erythr/o/cyt/osis: Increase in red blood cells Thromb/o/cyt/osis: Increase in number of platelets
Leukemia Leuk/emia, a blood cancer, literally means a condition of white blood. In Leuk/o = White em = blood -ia = condition Leukemia, the blood is not really white. There
are too many immature white cells (leukocytes) in the blood. This finding was used to name the disease Leukemia. Lymph/o = Lymphatic System Lympha = Water or liquid (Latin) Lymph/o/cyte: A type of WBC produced by the lymphatic system Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a disease involving the lymphocytes Hist/o = Tissue Hist/o/blast: Immature tissue
Hist/o/logy: The study of tissues Hist/o/logist: One who studies tissues Hist/o/cyte: A tissue cell Hist/o = Tissue Hist/o/lysis: Destruction of tissue Hist/o/genous: A substance that is made by tissue Hist/o/logy: The study of tissue Hist/o/logist: One who studies tissues Hist/o/blast: An embryonic tissue Hist/o/cyte: A tissue cell Hist/oid: Resembling tissue Mania = Madness
Mania = Madness (Greek) Man/ia means a condition of madness or excessive preoccupation Many mental disorders end with this word. Megal/o/mania: Symptom of a mental disorder in which the patient has delusions of grandeur (greatly enlarged opinions of themselves). -ic, -ac = Pertaining to Examples: Leukemic Dermic Manic Gastric Cardiac
Acute Cardiovascular Disease Acute lymphocytic leukemia American Registry of Radiologic Technologists American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonography American Society of Radiologic Technologist Complete Blood Count Cardiac (Coronary) Care Unit Cardiac Enlargement
A taxonomy of granular partitions ... Spatial partition Folk categorization of water bodies Conclusions Formal ontology of granular partitions Ongoing work Folk and common-sense categories have weaker structure A theory of granularity, vagueness, and approximation based on partition theory A...
Parsing The syntactic analyser or "parser" Main task: To construct a syntactic structure from the words of the sentence as they arrive Different approaches Serial Analysis (Modular): Build just one based on syntactic information and continue to try to add...
Zinio Digital Magazines. Hundreds of magazines. Provided County-wide to all libraries. Universal Class. Over 500 online classes available. Approved by the International Association for Continuing Education and Training. Earn Continuing Education credits. Courses are self-paced
output stream that goes to the standard output device ... Your college is hosting a chess tournament, and the people running the tournament want to record the final positions of the pieces in each game on a sheet of paper...
Money Creation. Money creation process by which money enters into circulation. Every dollar added, creates a change of more than one dollar in the economy. Banks make money by charging interest on loans. Amount banks are allowed to lend is...
Learning objective - to be able to explain the changes in attitudes towards the poor in the Elizabethan era. I can . describe. the key reasons why attitudes towards the poor changed in the Elizabethan era. ... This problem was...
Cybersecurity & Interoperability are Navy Imperatives. The cyber threat continues to grow exponentially; a challenge to both government and commercial cybersecurity enterprises. Ensuring critical data exchange and securing the Fleet requires a fundamental change in our approach
He ordered a hamburger." ... Human evaluation of script inferences for the LSTM text model and compare to event model. Try a bi-directional LSTM that conditions on subsequent events as well as prior events when making predictions.
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!