Medieval Europe - Weebly

Medieval Europe - Weebly

Medieval Europe The Byzantine Empire Feudal Japan Decline of Roman Empire Decline begins around 200 CE Rise of Christianity Long borders Over-dependence on slavery Technological stagnation High taxes

Weak/corrupt rulers Disease Nomadic invasions Roman Empire collapses in 476 CE Changes in Western Europe Repeated invasions and constant warfare ended the Western Roman Empire: Disruption of Trade Merchants faced invasions from land and sea. Businesses collapse and money becomes scarce.

Downfall of Cities Cities were abandoned. Population Shift Population moves from cities to countryside (rural). Feudalism No centralized government No army/order to protect the people/trade routes Peasants turn to wealthy to protect them

Vassals were given land in exchange for labor or military service Peasants become serfs Tied to the land Creation of manorialism The Economic Side of Feudalism The manor was the lords estate. an economic arrangement between a lord and his serfs.

The lord would provide serfs with housing, farmland, and protection In return, the serfs tended the lords lands cared for his animals performed other tasks to maintain the estate. The manor was largely a self-sufficient community. The Middle Ages The Dark Ages

500 CE 1000 CE A period with few surviving written accounts Lack of centralized government Little access to education Lack of technological/cultural development The Middle Ages The Later Middle Ages 1000 CE 1500 CE Innovation

Iron plow Horse collar Iron horseshoes Three field system Innovation = increase in crop production = population

increases = cultural development Crusades The Catholic Church Western Europe did not have a powerful emperor The Catholic Church was the only church in Europe The pope used his power to influence politics By 1200, church owned 1/3 of all land in Western Europe

Chivalry and Knighthood Chivalry A code of Honor and Behavior Gallantry, courtesy and honor. The noble qualities a knight was supposed to have, such as courage and a readiness to help the weak. The demonstration of any of these qualities. Page Squire Knight Typically a man who was pledged to serve his liege or king in military service.

The Crusades Crusade: a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims from 10961272. They fought over control of the Holy Land Jerusalem, because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached and died

Causes of the Crusades Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire Muslims stopped Christians from Visiting Holy Land Christian pilgrims

were attacked Byzantine Empire feared attack on Constantinople The Call to Arms Pope Urban II called for the defeat of the Turks To return Holy Land to Christians

Answered by Feudal Lords Knights Peasants Timeline of Crusades

First Crusade (1096 - 1099) Second Crusade (1147 - 1149) Third Crusade (1189 - 1192) Fourth Crusade (1202 - 1204) Fifth Crusade (1217 - 1221) Sixth Crusade (1228 - 1229) Seventh Crusade (1248 - 1254) Eighth Crusade (1270)

Ninth Crusade (1271 - 1272) Results of the Crusades Improvements Ships, Maps, Explorers Kings increase their power Able to collect taxes to fund their armies Feudalism declines Feudal lords die or spend too much money on military.

Turks still rule the Holy Land Trade increases Europeans want goods from East (sugar, cotton, silk, spices) The Italian Renaissance 1300-1600 What was the Renaissance? The Renaissance was a time of renewal Renaissance means rebirth Europe was recovering from the Dark Ages and the

Black Death. People had lost their faith in the church began to put more focus on human beings. The Renaissance Where did it begin? Italy Italian Cities Urban Societies Major Trading Centers

Secular Moved away from life in the church Focuses more on material objects and enjoying life How did the Crusades contribute to the Renaissance? 1) Increased demand for Middle Eastern products 2) Stimulated production of goods to trade in Middle Eastern markets 3) Encouraged the use of credit and banking 4) New accounting and bookkeeping

practices (use of Arabic numerals) were introduced. Political Ideas of the Renaissance Niccol Machiavelli The Prince Machiavelli believed: One can make this generalization about men: they are ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers, they shun danger and are greedy for profit Machiavelli observed city-state rulers of his

day and produced guidelines for the acquisition and maintenance of power by absolute rule. He felt that a ruler should be willing to do anything to maintain control without worrying about conscience. Better to be feared than to be loved Ruler should be quick and decisive Maintain power by

any means necessary The end justifies the means Be good when possible, and evil when necessary The Prince Renaissance Art New ideas reflected in art, philosophy, literature Patrons, wealthy from newly expanded trade,

sponsored works which glorified city-states in northern Italy. Education became increasingly secular. Medieval art and literature focused on the Church and salvation Renaissance art and literature focused on individuals and worldly matters, along with Christianity.

Renaissance Artists Renaissance Artists embraced some of the ideals of Greece and Rome in their art They wanted their subjects to be realistic and focused on humanity and emotion New Techniques also emerged Frescos: Painting done on wet plaster Gave depth to paintings Sculpture emphasized realism and the human form

Architecture reached new heights of design Michelangelo (1475-1564 Born in a small town near Florence, is considered to be one of the most inspired men who ever lived David Michelangelo created his masterpiece David in 1504.

Sistine Chapel About a year after creating David, Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to work on his most famous project, the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engineer, inventor, etc.

Notebooks Raphael Painter - 1483-1520 Origin of the Plague Far East through Asia Silk Road Brought to Europe through Sicily (Messina) Aboard Italian ships trading in the Black Sea

Spread throughout European Ports Additional outbreaks throughout 1300s-1700s The Black Death (1346-1353) Bacterial infection Airborne Carried by fleas, rats Black boils that oozed blood and pus, fever, pain Estimated 75 million killed worldwide

20 Million +/- in Europe (approx. 1/3 of Europes pop.) Additional devastation from famines (Great Famine (13151322ish) Affected livestock as well Especially European wool market Popular Response Quarantine Cities closed their gates Doctors refused to see patients Fleeing to countryside

Abandoning loved-ones Flagellants (Gods punishment?) Religious enthusiasm Not sanctioned by the Church Blaming Jews Impact of the Black Death Some turn away from the Church Had been unable to provide help

Some survivors took to debauchery The Dance of Death The all-conquering power Art, literature Changing Ways of Life Smaller population = less need for farming Diversification of crops Land returned to pasture/forest

Better standard of living Higher wages (supply and demand) = better diet Challenged class distinctions Higher birthrates Need for education (esp. priests) New universities constructed Overlapping History The Black Death 1346-1353 Continuous outbreaks for several centuries Sanitation, public health practices

The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 Continuous population movement and trade Contributed to spread of disease The Hundred Years War France vs. Britain (1337-1453) Causes: Controversy over Succession Land ownership British Kings owned land in France Conflict over Flanders

Struggle for National Identity France was NOT unified Military Characteristics The War was a series of short raids and expeditions punctuated by a few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties. The relative strengths of each country dictated the

sporadic nature of the struggle. Advantages French Population of about 16,000,000. Far richer and more populous than England. At highest point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000

At most, Britain mustered only 32,000. British Weapons Technologies Longbow In almost every engagement, the English were outnumbered Britains most successful strategies:

Avoid pitched battles. Engage in quick, profitable raids Steal what you can. Destroy everything else. Capture enemy knights to hold for ransom. The Longbow as a Weapon

The use of the English defensive position was the use of the longbow. Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a crossbow. Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards! A longbow could be fired more rapidly. 6 arrows per minute.

Joan of Arc (1412-1432) The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English. Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation. Her voices told her to go to the king and assist him in driving out the English.

She dressed like a man and was Charles most charismatic and feared military leader! Joan of Arc (1412-1432) She brought inspiration and a sense of national identity and self-confidence. With her aid, the king was

crowned at Reims ending the disinheritance She was captured during an attack on Paris and fell into English hands.

Because of her unnatural dress and claim to divine guidance, she was condemned and burned as a heretic in 1432. She instantly became a symbol of French resistance. France Becomes Unified France in 1453

France in 1337 The Byzantine Empire Roman Empire had been split Two capitals: Rome and Constantinople Fall of western empire doesnt disrupt life in east. Byzantines still governed by emperor Had secular and religious authority

Caesaropapism (combination of king and pope) Speak Greek, very little social mobility Seclusion and veiling of women begins (not introduced by Muslims) Conflict in the Church 1054 CE the church officially splits Disagreements over the worship of saints The Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople Excommunicate each other (kick each other out)

Creates two churches Roman Catholic Church Eastern Orthodox Church Will later spread to Slavic (eastern European, Russian) populations Decline of the Byzantine Empire Empire begins to decline around 1000 CE Causes The Crusades Diseases

Technological stagnation Long borders 1453 CE Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople Comparing Feudalism Western Europe Japan Peasants worked on land for

protection from nobles Divided into smaller kingdoms Knights Chivalry Predominately Christian Religion was main theme in art and literature Feudalism disappears by 1500 CE Peasants worked on land for

protection from nobles Maintained an emperor Samurai Bushido Buddhism, Shinto, Confucianism Nature was main theme in art and literature Feudalism does not disappear until mid-1800s

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