Meeting the Challenge of the Oral Language Gap

Meeting the Challenge of the Oral Language Gap

Meeting the Challenge of the Oral Language Gap Skill in Verbal Reasoning is a Major Factor in Performance on the FCAT Barbara Gaiser MS, CCC Speech/ Language Pathologist Reading First Coach Just Read Florida Johnny can decode but not comprehend the FCAT. Verbal Reasoning Using language to think Without a language system must think using mental visual images

FCAT is testing how well we can think about information we get from reading written texts. FCAT Language Specifications Identify or label things, events and ideas using words Understand that new information is embedded in clauses/phrases Relate information/ideas to other

information/ideas using conjunctions Apply verbal reasoning processes that may not be modeled in their home. Johnny can decode but not comprehend the FCAT. Rationale for Oral Language Instruction Sunshine State Standards which are correlated with verbal learning and reasoning: L.A.A.l.l.3; L.A.A.l.2.3; L.A.B.1.1.2; L.A.B.1.1.3; L.A.B1.2.2. Readers use oral language to make sense of words they see in print.

Readers must understand 95% of words in a text before comprehend meaning. Advanced readers must be able to learn new word meanings from contextual and derivational clues in the written text. Ashas Position Statement (2001) Roles and Responsibilities of the SLP with Respect to Reading and Writing in Children and Adolescents. Inextricable link between spoken and written language

Hierarchical and reciprocal relationship Recognition that the same children who have problems with spoken language also have problems with reading an writing Goals of Oral Language Instruction To connect words found in text, to the students life experiences, thereby those words meaning. To clarify and extend word meanings.

To develop strategies for learning new words. To use language to both gain and give information orally and graphically. SLP Outcomes Good and the Greater Good. Identify and plan to implement IEP objectives which are most relevant and supportive of literacy tasks grades k-3. Resolve scheduling issues associated with 90 minute Reading Block through use of SLP directed authentic center based instruction.

Use expertise and leadership ability to advance all student's oral language and verbal reasoning skill as tested by the FCAT. The Greater Good Verbal reasoning is how we think. If a person does not think for themselves, someone will think for them. Our students, schools and society are in jeopardy.

We have a moral obligation to use our talents to effect positive change. As a member of your schools Reading Leadership Team you can be part of the solution. Outcomes for the Educational Leaders, Reading Coaches and Teachers Understand the link between oral language and mastery of the SS State Standards as measured by SAT 10 and FCAT. Identify what oral language is most educationally relevant for k-3.

Recognize what strategies do and dont work to effectively increase oral language skills. Outcomes (cont) Develop and implement explicit language instruction as an integral part of all classroom instruction and routines. Develop a plan for targeting students who are at high risk and provide for iii grades k-3. Provide follow though: inspect what you expect and reward results.

Research: Facts for Focus Vocabulary knowledge is one of the single most important factors contributing to comprehension. 95% of the words in a text must be known in order for the text to be understood. Students need to add approximately 2000-3500 word meanings to their reading vocabulary a year. Source: National Reading Panel. 2002 In Florida our effectiveness will be judged by the performance our students make on the FCAT The oral language gap is a major limiting

factor in student performance on the FCAT at third grade. Skill in oral language/verbal reasoning will have an even greater impact on FCAT performance in later grades. Source: Dr. Joseph Torgenson, - Director Florida Center Reading Research. 2004 What skills are particularly deficient in level 1 and level 2 readers in 3rd grade? 1 Skill/Ability FCAT Performance Level 2 3

4 5 WPM on DIBELS 61 96 111 132 155 Fluency Percentile 6th

32nd 56th 78th 93rd Phonemic Decoding 25th 45th 59th 74th 91st Verbal

knowledge/ Reasoning 42nd 59th 72nd 91st 98th SAT9 percentile 31st 45th 69th

87th 95th Source: Dr. Joseph Torgenson, Director Florida Center for Reading Research. 60 Average Percentile 50 40 32 34 32 34 30 20

10 Average verbal score of level 1 Students in FCAT study was 42nd % 0 Kindergarten 1st 2nd Dr. Joseph Torgenson, Florida Center for Reading Research, 2004 3rd Percentile on test of Oral Vocabulary Percentile Scores on Peabody Johnny can decode but not

comprehend the FCAT. Etiology of the Language Gap Research indicates that children from lower socio-economic strata have adult models who use: Non specific referents Provide directives rather than interactions Use concrete language Few expansions of information Less complex language Limited models for verbal problem solving

FCAT Language Specifications Identify entities and ideas with words Find new information embedded in text Relate info and ideas to other info and ideas using conjunctions Use verbal reasoning processes not modeled orally in the home. Pause and Reflect

Marketing: Sell it up and work it down Use PPVT and Gates scores from Outcome Measures to identify high risk students. (RC) Implement a plan for all student which includes both refined instruction and curricular supplements. (RLT) Create prescriptive plans for high risk students: such as a Language Literacy Center or Class. (RLT) Components of Oral Language

Vocabular y Labels Concepts Relationships Abstract Ideas Morpholog y Affixes Synta x Sentence Rules for Communicatio n Functions Types

Source: Language Development and Language Disorders. Bloom and Lahey Oral Language Components Specific Skills at Grade Levels See Handout #1 What Every Teacher Must Know to Teach Oral Language

When to use explicit vs. implicit instruction The difference between teaching and testing The criterion for word selection Know what strategies do not work Know what strategies do work How to make time to do it Expansions and Expiations Expansions refine the grammar. Them dogs be big. Those dogs are big. Expiations expand the meaning. Those big dogs are called Great Danes. Teachers should habitually employ both in adult/student interactions.

Differentiating Between Implicit and Explicit Instruction Implicit instruction reinforces word knowledge though experiences and modeling. Works well for good incidental learners. Does not provide for multiple repetitions and word knowledge expansion. (Indirect) Explicit instruction reinforces word knowledge though a sequential and intentional process and works will for students who need multiple repetitions and word knowledge expansion. (Direct) Teaching vs. Testing

Always teach before you test. Identifying and teaching pre-requisite skills Teaching involves providing: rules, explanations, examples and non examples. Testing is done to check for comprehension. Testing involves asking the student to: show, find, point or tell you something. Criterion for Word

Selection Tier 1 Basic words usually labels for things for actions. (Boy acts funny) Tier 2 Words that are useful in describing own life and/or which are likely to appear in multiple contexts (Youngster is comical) Tier 3 Words that are specialized

Found in content area texts (Comedienne) Adapted from Building a Robust Vocabulary, Isabel L Beck, PhD, and Margaret McKeown, PhD. Tier Two Words Source: Elements of Reading Vocabulary, Beck PhD.& McKeown Ph.D First Grade clumsy suspense plead invisible scold gobble romp tidy exaggerate glimpse dull caution

regret Second Grade glimmer murmur weary glee cooperate cozy hectic generous predicament cling treacherous elegant Miniature Third Grade assume tremble nutritious resemble

obvious coincidence confirm gracious priority conceal frisky abundant bizarre Name That Tier forlorn disguise hungry absurd oboe corner carburetor kitchen Little Words Big Problems

Conjunctions link two or more thoughts and often confuse the reader who does not understand their meaning. Conjunctions are usually short words which are commonly used and therefore overlooked as a target for direct instruction. Example: You can have cake and ice cream if you work out tonight; however, it isnt great cake, therefore I'd pass, albeit that's my opinion. Negation is Not Easy Children often hear the contracted

negative. Parents rarely use the more formal not to indicate negation, tests frequently do. Example: Show me the cow that is not eating. Noun and Verb Phrases and Clauses Phrases and clauses are used in the language system to convey information.

Santas little helpers. When a student does not learn to integrate phrases and clauses into their oral language they often overlooked them in written text. Example: I want the Mickey Mouse watch, that has diamonds marking the hour, which is located in the front of the little store. Background : Oral Language Development Age 2 Labels Age 3 Concepts and grammatical forms

Kindergarten may be 2-3 years delayed CCRP expects CA=LA Oral Language Targeted for Explicit Instruction Grades k-2 Curriculum Mapping Conceptual Language Spatial / locational Temporal Quantity/Measurement Grammar ing, ed, s, er, est plurals, pronouns, To meet their

needs conjunctions and, or, if, but, because To control their world Wh questions Tier 2 Vocabulary Words CCRP Words Supplemental Materials Tier 3 Vocabulary Words Read Alouds Content Area Social Use Sentence Structures Noun phrases Verb phrases

Simple and compound Oral Language Targeted for Explicit Instruction Curriculum Mapping for Grades 3-5 Abstract Language Multiple meanings Similes Idioms Proverbs Metaphors Grammar Conjunctions Secondary verbs Prefixes/Suffixes Tier 2 CCRP Vocabulary Words

Sentence Structures Supplemental Materials Tier 3 Vocabulary Words in content Area Noun phrases and clauses Verb phrases and clauses Complex Sentences Social Use Problem solve Negotiate Entertain Persuade

Code switching Informal to Formal Grade Level Expectations See Handouts #2 Pause and Reflect Revise curriculum maps to include age appropriate language targets For example: See Grade Level Expectation Handout #2 Instructional Strategies That Dont Teach Language As Well as We Might Think

Students guessing at definition Student exposed to inaccurate information 60% of answers judged unacceptable Definitions from the dictionary Vague, too concise 65% judged to be odd Word meaning gleaned from text Authors purpose is to tell a story, not define words Source: Building a Robust Vocabulary. Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2003 Word Meaning From Text Often Difficult to Determine

Mis-directive: grudgingly. She is brilliant, we thought Non-directive: I knew that whining voice, it must be Cherise. General: Directive: Uses synonyms and definitions. I wish I could be as gregarious as Tom.

I was so flummoxed, I was confused, in a state of flux that day. Instructional Strategies That Do Work, Even Better Than You Think Explicit instruction to teach new word meaning Implicit instruction or modeling to reinforce acquired word meanings Teaching then testing for comprehension Student friendly, bumper sticker definitions

Graphical organizers : word wheels, word continuums Hearing the word in a variety of contexts throughout the day EXCIPS MODEL for Explicit Language Instruction Exposure: Relate to prior knowledge Phonemic awareness Student friendly explanation Clarify with: examples, non examples, word word continuums Comprehension:

WH Questions, reasons, contexts, examples of use Imitation: Student imitates word in its grammatical context Prompt: Student prompted to use in follow up activities Spontaneous: wheels and Create ways to use and maintain by classroom routines incorporating into daily Specific Strategies: When and why to use them to develop oral language

Strategy Before During Word Maps x x Word Wheel x Word Continuums x Feature Analysis x Visualization x Rule Statement x x x x x x After

x x *A few used independently are worth many used dependently. What does it mean to know a word? No knowledge Concrete or partial definition Memorized definition Imitates what another student said Can explain it to another Can use abstractly: humorously or figuratively

How Word Wise Are You? Word Know well Do not know can explain Vicissitudes Surreptitious Apoplectic Flummox Brouhaha Can relate to a situation Have seen or heard it at all Authentic SLP Directed Learning Centers

Phonemic Awareness Auditory discrimination of same and different sounds, that are progressively more alike Segmentation of blends (cccvcc) Provide strategies for teacher as well as small group instruction for iii center. Examples: Thumbs up/down, chin bounce, finger count, back to back and board game. Phonics Teachers excel at this, not best use of SLP time

SLP may provide specialized help with students who have dialectal differences which compromise short vowels Provide semantic cues to aid vowel sound recall Example : LIPS (distinctive features) and /or Secret Stories Fluency

Function of decoding and comprehension SLP may assist when comprehension is compromising rate/ wpm May also help with prosodic features of oral reading. Examples: Readers Theatre Oral Language Semantic expansions of target words from CCRP, concept development for time, place, quantity, abstract ideas and figurative language. Grammatical forms: morphological markers, negation, pronouns, conjunctions, finding

information embedded in clauses and phrases. Strategies: Maintain theme from CCRP, teach the rule for the skill, adapt commercial products for center use. Comprehension Identify the language pre-requisites for the task. Teachers excel at main idea, details, author's purpose. (Confirm with schools FCAT data analysis) Focus on prediction , inference, cause and effect. (See word clues handout # 4 ) Teach the process as well as the

grammatical context in which the answer is framed. Process to Teach Prediction Relate or build prior knowledge Describe what happened Compare and contrast Evaluate, can the same thing happen? Use models when framing grammatical context. Integrate Higher Order Verbal Reasoning in all Instruction

My purpose in teaching you this is. The main idea I want to teach is.. Compared to yesterday this .. Looking at this, I can infer Based on what I know, I can predict..

If I choose to do this, then I will have to Plan to Integrate Language Instruction Across the Curriculum Lesson plan must identify the measurable skills to be learned in each of FAB 5. First, identify the comprehension goal Go back and identify language targets Go forward and identify writing targets Plans should be integrated. See Lesson Plan Handout Lesson Plan

See Handouts #3 Oral Language for the Instruction of New Information Slightly below the students oral language level as determined by the mean length of utterance. (MLU) Use simple sentences Limit complex language: conjunctions and embedded clauses

Reducing the level of instructional language ensures you are teaching only one unknown at a time Oral Language to Support Grade Level Instruction Identify the pre-requisite vocabulary in both your instruction and the text. Develop the prior knowledge needed to comprehend the new information. Paraphrase text using simple sentences.

Avoid use of embedded clauses and another complex structures. Written Language Problems that Result from Limited Oral Language Concrete ideation Lack of development of details Disorganization of events Limited expression of ideas, characters or events

Lack of cohesive transitions. Dont Forget: Strategies to place information in Long Term Memory Associate with something you already know After the hurricane, we felt confused. We were flummoxed when we returned to work. Motivate identify a reason to use the word There are a lot of confusing things in this world

I will have many opportunities to use this word Contextualize know the grammatical form Flummox means confused, It is a verb. Repeat about to increase familiarity and fluency After I hear it while, practice a bit I am no longer flummoxed when and how to use the world Source: Semantic Difficulties in Children with Language Impairments. Blackenberg Reading Leadership Team

Checklist Staff development for teachers/ PDP/Evaluation Identify extent of problem (Outcome Measures: Gates/ PPVT) Identify specific high risk students ( Outcome Measures: PPVT) Plan for providing explicit language for all students (Supplemental) Plan for iii for specific at risk students (Supplemental)

Provide programs, materials to teach language Inspect what you expect: Walk through, PDP, Evaluation Reward results. Edutainment Washington Posts New Definitions Sarchasm wit The gulf between the author of sarcastic

and the person who doesnt get it. Inoculatte you are To take coffee intravenously when running late. Hipatitis Terminal coolness Dopeler effect The tendency of stupid ideas to seem smarter when they come at your rapidly Osteopornosis A degenerate disease Short Stories and Tall

Tales by the Princess and Pirate Video learning series designed to teach the concepts and grammatical forms to support early literary for pre k through grade one. Provides explicit instruction for students Models explicit instruction for teachers Provides implicit instruction in phonemic awareness, story grammar and higher level verbal reasoning.

Tales by the Princess and the Pirate A video learning series used to teach academically relevant oral language, pre K- first grade. Focuses on concepts and grammatical forms which support literacy Explicit and integrated language instruction for phoneme awareness, story grammar, symbolic progression for new vocabulary. Implicit and integrated instruction for higher order verbal

reasoning skills. Ordering Information: [email protected] References Beck, I.L; McKeown, M.G.& Kucan, L. (2002)BringingWrods to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: the Guilford Press. Beers. L/ Vocabulary, figuring out what words mean. When Kids Cant Read. What teachers can do. (2003) Blackenbery, T; Pye, C. (2005) Semantic Deficits in Children with Language Impairment. Jr. Language Speech and Hearing Services in schools. Vol 36. pgs 5016

Bloom, L; Lahey, M. Language Development and Language Disorders. NY: John Wiley and sons , 1978. Lehr, F; Osborn, J. and Hierber, E. (2004) A focus on vocabulary. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Gaiser, B., Short Stories and Tall Tales by the Princess and the Pirate. Video learning series, Lee County School District. [email protected]

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