Meiosis Notes Foldable You need 6 pieces of printer paper Stagger the pages about 1cm (width of pinky finger) DO NOT make the tabs too large!!!!! Fold the stack of pages to make the foldable as diagramed on the next slide On the cover write MEIOSIS On the back put your Name and Period Foldable Layout Label the tabs of the foldable according to the diagram to the
right Meiosis Meiosis Introduction Interphase Prophase I Vocabulary Metaphase I (11th tab) Anaphase I Telophase I & Cytokinesis Metaphase II
Anaphase II Telophase II & Cytokinesis Meiosis II Prophase II Vocabulary & Useful facts Meiosis I Use some way (choice is yours) to show which tabs make up Meiosis I and which tabs
make up Meiosis II Note Taking Key Text in black will be copied into your flipbook Vocabulary words will be like this Meiosis Highlight these in your notes when the text is black, you will define these in the back of your foldable Interesting facts will have slide Headings and text in blue like this Mitosis vs Meiosis You do not have to copy blue text into your flipbook unless you want to Mitosis Diagram There is not room for you to draw this diagram, but know what it means
cells (diploid ) Meiosis Introduction (1 st tab upper half) Process of reduction division Purpose: Produces gametes (sex cells) sperm & egg Meiosis is NOT a cycle like mitosis. Diploid vs. Haploid Diploid a cell that contains homologous chromosomes (one from each parent)
represented by the symbol 2N Found in somatic or body cells (ex. Skin, digestive tract) Example : Humans 2N = 46 Haploid a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes (one from either parent, not both); represented by the symbol N or 1N Found in gametes or sex cells sperm & egg Example: Humans N = 23 Meiosis Introduction (1st tab middle) Chromosome Numbers Somatic cells: (diploid = 2N = 46 chromosomes in humans) Gametes: (haploid = N = 23 chromosomes in humans)
You DO NOT have to draw these pictures on the 1st tab for Meiosis Introduction Just write the Somatic and Gamete info above Chromosome Numbers of Some Common Organisms Organism Body Cell (2n) Gamete (n)
Human Garden Pea 46 14 23 7 Fruit fly Tomato Dog Chimpanzee 8
24 78 48 4 12 39 24 Leopard frog 26 13 Corn
Apple 20 34 10 17 1260 630 Indian fern Meiosis Introduction (1st tab middle) Similar to Mitosis IPMATC
Meiosis involves two distinct divisions, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II By the end of Meiosis II, the 1 diploid cell that entered meiosis has become 4 haploid cells The next slide has a labeled picture for you to draw Meiosis Introduction (1st tab bottom half) Draw the general cell division stages and label them Do NOT worry about drawing the chromosomes at this time. Interphase Prophase 1
Telophase 2 & Cytokinesis Interphase (2 tab) nd Centrioles Stage between divisions Contains: centrioles and chromatin Made of stages: G1 basic cell growth S replication and repair of DNA G2 final preparation for cell division
Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Nucleus (with chromatin) Meiosis I (You do not need to draw these, Just showing you the stages) Prophase I (3 tab upper half of page) rd
Centrioles Draw and label Corresponding this picture in your flipbook homologous chromosomes from each parent pair up to form homologous pairs When homologous chromosome overlap its called crossing over. Spindle fibers
Homologous Pairs (Humans have 23 pairs making 46 total chromosomes) Prophase I (3rd tab lower half of page) Crossing over happens when parts of the homologues chromosomes switch places after overlapping Draw this diagram and use 2 different colors to show the exchanged genetic material How can siblings look alike but not exactly the same if they come from the same parents?
Importance of crossing over The gene combinations that a person gets from his or her parents will be different, to varying degrees, than the combination a sibling may get. Crossing over increases genetic diversity Add this statement to the Prophase 1 page on the 3rd tab
More sibling similarities Metaphase I The centrioles send out (4 tab) th Centrioles spindle fibers to line up homologous pairs in the middle of cell along the metaphase plate Draw and label this picture in your
flipbook Spindle fibers Homologous Pairs Anaphase I (5th tab upper half) Centrioles The centrioles use the spindle fibers to separate the homologous pairs Spindle
fibers Each homologous chromosome is pulled to the opposite pole of the cell Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Homologous Chromosomes Anaphase I
(5th tab upper half) If the centrioles do not properly attach the spindle fibers to the homologous chromosome before they start to pull, then a Nondisjunction will occur Centrioles Spindle fibers
Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Homologous Chromosomes Anaphase I (5th tab lower half) Nondisjunction in Meiosis I In the first picture you see how the lower red chromosome is being pulled to the wrong side In the second picture it caused one pole of the cell to have an extra
chromosome A Nondisjunction causes the gametes to have the wrong amount of chromosomes Draw this picture in your flipbook and use different colors to show the different chromosomes Telophase I & Cytokinesis (6th tab) Centrioles
Telophase I the cell creates a temporary nucleus around the two homologous chromosome sets Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Cytokinesis the cell divides into two cells Nuclear Membrane Homologous
Chromosomes Prophase II (7 tab) th The next slide has information about starting Meiosis II. Write this information on the Prophase II (7th tab upper half) and draw a box around it. You do not have to draw the picture for all of Meiosis II because youll draw each stage individually. The lower half of the 7th tab will be Prophase II. Describe and diagram that slide Meiosis II (7th tab upper half)
The two new cells produced by meiosis I now enter a second meiotic division The cells do NOT replicate DNA resulting in four haploid cells Each cell has half of the original DNA 2N 2 = N Do NOT draw this picture in your flipbook Prophase II (7th tab lower half) Each of the Meiosis II
stages are running in 2 cells at the same time. Similar to Prophase of Mitosis Centrioles attach spindle fibers to the chromosomes Centrioles Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Chromosomes
Spindle fibers Metaphase II (8th tab) Similar to Metaphase of Mitosis Centrioles use spindle fibers to line up the chromosomes in the middle at the metaphase plate
Centrioles Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Chromosomes Spindle fibers Anaphase II The centrioles use the spindle fibers to separate the chromosomes into
individual chromatids (9th tab upper half) Centrioles Spindle fibers Each chromatid is pulled to the opposite pole of the cell Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Chromatids
Anaphase II If the centrioles do not properly attach the spindle fibers to the chromosome before they start to pull, then a Nondisjunction will occur (9th tab upper half) Centrioles Spindle fibers
Draw and label this picture in your flipbook Chromatids Anaphase II (9th tab lower half) Nondisjunction in Meiosis II In the third picture you see how the lower red chromosome only has one spindle fiber attached In the fourth picture it caused one gamete to have an extra chromatid
and the other gamete to be missing one. A Nondisjunction causes the gametes to have the wrong amount of chromosomes Draw this picture in your flipbook and use different colors to show the different chromosomes Telophase II & Cytokinesis (10th tab)
Telophase II the cells creates a permanent nucleus around the two haploid chromosome sets Cytokinesis the cells divides into four haploid daughter cells Chromatids Draw and label this picture in your flipbook
Nuclear Membrane Gamete (Sex Cell) Formation In male animals (including humans), the haploid gametes produced by meiosis are called sperm 4 sperm cells are produced from one meiotic division Gamete (Sex Cell) Formation In female animals (including humans), the haploid gametes produced by
meiosis are called eggs The cell divisions at the end of meiosis I & II are uneven, so that 1 large egg is produced along with 3 other cells, called polar bodies, which are discarded and not involved in reproduction Meiosis Animation The following slide shows a simple animation using a cell with 2 pairs of homologous chromosomes going through meiosis.
Meiosis Animation Meiosis I Animation http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/4 87/498728/CDA9_1/CDA9_1b/CDA9_1b.ht m Meiosis II Animation http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/4 87/498728/CDA9_1/CDA9_1c/CDA9_1c.htm Vocaulary & Useful Info This tab will contain vocabulary, a table and some useful facts Set up the page like the diagram to the right The dotted blue line is the
fold in the middle of the page (11th tab) Vocabulary section (there are 15 words so size accordingly) Vocabulary (11th tab) Mitosis vs Meiosis Table (The next couple of slides contain the info for this table) Useful Facts Vocabulary & Useful Info
Vocabulary (11th tab upper half) Reduction division When the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half Haploid A cell that has half the amount of chromosomes. A cell that is N for chromosome amount Diploid A cell that has one chromosome from each parent. A cell that is 2N for chromosome amount Gamete the haploid sex cells (in animals they are sperm and egg cells) Somatic Cell all diploid cells (body cells) that are not gametes Zygote fertilized egg cell formed form the joining of the gametes (sperm and egg) Vocabulary
(11th tab upper half) Centrioles Organelles in the cell that help to move chromosomes during cell division Chromatin What you call the DNA during Interphase, Very easy to access the genes for transcription and translation to create proteins Chromosome What you call the DNA during the actual cell division stages (Pro-, Meta-, Ana-, and Telophase). Condensed/packed DNA for easy movement during cell division Chromatid One of the arms of a chromosome X. Each chromatid is identical to the other because it is created by replication. A chromosome is made of two Sister Chromatids. Spindle Fiber fibers created and used by the centrioles to move the chromosomes around during the division stages.
Vocabulary (11th tab upper half) Homologous Chromosomes the same numbered chromosome that pair up from mother and father (ex: moms chromosome 1 and dads chromosome 1) Crossing Over A type of chromosomal mutation that occurs in Prophase 1 of meiosis. Homologous chromosomes overlap and exchange pieces of the chromosome which caused genetic variability. Nondisjuction occurs in either Anaphase 1 or Anaphase 2 when one centriole does not connect to the chromosome with a spindle fiber. Causes the gametes to have extra or missing chromosomes. Fertilization The process of making a zygote. When egg and sperm cells fuse and combine their genetic information (DNA)
Table (11th tab lower half) Mitosis Set up your table as shown Number of Starting cells Number of ending cells Number of Human Chromosomes Genetic Make up of cells
Type of cells Meiosis Use the following slides to complete the table you just made. The text is in blue so you dont have to write it all, but you will have to include some to complete the table. Comparing Mitosis & Meiosis Number of cells at beginning of process Mitosis = 1 Diploid cell Meiosis = 1 Diploid Cell Number of cells at the end of the process
Mitosis = 2 Diploid Cells Meiosis = 4 Haploid Cells Comparing Mitosis & Meiosis Number of chromosomes at the START Mitosis = 46 (Diploid, two sets) Meiosis = 46 Number of chromosomes at the END Mitosis = 46 Meiosis = 23 (Haploid, one set) Comparing Mitosis & Meiosis Is the genetic make-up of the daughter cells UNIQUE or IDENTICAL? Mitosis produces 2 IDENTICAL CELLS
Meiosis produces 4 UNIQUE CELLS Comparing Mitosis & Meiosis Type of cell in the human body that can undergo each phase Mitosis produces Somatic BODY cells (skin) Meiosis produces Gamete SEX cells (sperm or eggs) Interesting Facts (11th tab bottom) Females produce all their eggs at once, and store them at a very early age (They release one each month during
menstruation) Why is this not necessarily a good thing? Males make sperm constantly from puberty until they die.
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