Memory Chapter 9 1 Memory Memory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself. If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and
even you yourself would be a stranger. 2 The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. 3 Flashbulb Memory Ruters/ Corbis
A unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent memory called flashbulb memory. However, this memory is not free from errors. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TFPOstgw3rk (1:42) President Bush being told of 9/11 attack. 4 At your tables discuss: In what way did false memories play into Bushs recall?
False memory- an apparent recollection of an event that did not actually occur. 5 Stages of Memory Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage)
Monitor (Retrieval) Sequential Process 6 Information Processing Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory. 7 Problems with the Model 1. Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically.
2. Since we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us. 3. The nature of short-term memory is more complex. 8 Working Memory Alan Baddeley (2002) proposes that working memory contains auditory and visual processing controlled by the central executive through an episodic buffer.
9 Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode 1. Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed. 2. However, new or unusual information (friends new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort. 10
Automatic Processing We process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following: 1. Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page. 2. Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. 3. Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you. 11
Effortful Processing Bananastock/ Alamy Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit Committing novel information to memory requires effort just like learning a concept from a textbook. Such processing leads to durable and accessible
memories. 12 Rehearsal Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de
Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) 13 Rehearsal
The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2. 14 Memory Effects 1. Next-in-line-Effect: When you are so anxious about being next that you
cannot remember what the person just before you in line says, but you can recall what other people around you say. 2. Spacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time. 3. Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items. 15 Spacing Effect Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better
than practicing all at once. Robert Frosts poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time. ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHT Robert Frost I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light. 16 Serial Position Effect
1. TUV 2. ZOF 3. GEK 4. WAV 5. XOZ 6. TIK 7. FUT 8. WIB 9. SAR 10. POZ 11. REY 12. GIJ
Better recall Poor recall Better recall 17 What We Encode 1. Encoding by meaning 2. Encoding by images 3. Encoding by organization
18 Results 19 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Both photos: Ho/AP Photo
Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about 20it. Mnemonics Imagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery in aiding memory. 1. Method of Loci 2. Link Method 21
Method of Loci List of Items Imagined Locations Hammer Rug Charcoal Bed Sheets Pens Garage Living Room
Backyard Bedroom Study 22 Link Method List of Items Onions Pizza Sandals Watch Butter
Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together. 23 Organizing Information for Encoding Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. 1. Chunkin g
2. Hierarch y 24 Chunking Organizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below. 1-7-7-6-1-4-9-2-1-8-1-2-1-9-4-1 If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better. 1776 1492 1812 1941.
25 Chunking Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it. HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior PEMDAS = Parentheses, Exponent, Multiply, Divide, Add, Subtract ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet 26
Hierarchy Complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories. 27 Memory Ted Talk (20:09) http://www.ted.com/talks/joshua_foer_feats _of_memory_anyone_can_do?language =en
28 Storage: Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working Memory
The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. 80 60 40 20 0.15 0.30 0.50 Time (Seconds)
1.00 31 Sensory Memories The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses. Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic
< 1 sec. long 32 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory
Encoding Events Encoding Retrieval Retrieval 33 Working Memory Working memory, the new name for shortterm memory, has a limited capacity
(72) and a short duration (20 seconds). Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember up 34 to 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed. Capacity The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information
(1956). Ready? MUTGIKTLRS YP You should be able to recall 72 letters. George Miller 35 Chunking
The capacity of the working memory may be increased by Chunking. F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI TWA CIA 4 chunks IBM 36
Duration Brown/Peterson and Peterson (1958/1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal. CHJ MKT HIJ 547 547 544 541
CH?? The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec. 37 Working Memory Duration 38 Long-Term Memory
Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding Events Encoding
Retrieval Retrieval 39 Long-Term Memory Unlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986). R.J. Erwin/ Photo Researchers
The Clarks nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter and spring. 40 Memory Feats https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoxsMMV538U (8:59) The woman who cant forget 41 Storing Memories in the
Brain 1. Through electrical stimulation of the brain, Wilder Penfield (1967) concluded that old memories were etched into the brain. 2. Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed Penfield's data and showed that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks. 3. Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze. 42
Synaptic Changes In Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning. Photo: Scientific American 43 Synaptic Changes Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov. 25 1999. Courtesy of Dominique Muller Long-Term Potentiation
(LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses. 44 Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or
otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory. Scott Barbour/ Getty Images 45 Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she
knows. 46 Hippocampus Hippocampus a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. Weidenfield & Nicolson archives 47 Anterograde Amnesia
After losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia. Anterograde Amnesia (HM) Memory Intact No New Memories Surgery
48 Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form new memories that are procedural (implicit). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw (7:01) The man who cant remember A B
C HM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game. 49 Cerebellum Cerebellum a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories. 50
Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store. Spankys Yearbook Archive Spankys Yearbook Archive 51 Measures of Memory In recall, the person must retrieve
information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) 1. The capital of France is ______. 52 Measures of Memory In recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.) 1. Name the capital of France. a.
b. c. d. Brussels Rome London Paris 53 Measures of Memory In relearning, the individual shows how
much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time. List List Jet Dagger Tree Kite Silk Frog
Ring Jet Original Relearning Dagger Trials Trials Tree Saving X 100 Relearning Kite Trials
10 5 Silk X 100 10 Frog Ring 1 day later It took 10 trials to learn this list
It took 5 trials to learn the list 50% 54 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. water smell
fire smoke Fire Truck heat hose truck red 55
Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming. 56 Context Effects Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden &
Baddeley, 1975). Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers 57 Dja Vu Dja Vu means I've experienced this before. Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience. The New Yorker Collection, 1990. Leo Cullum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved
58 Moods and Memories We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues. Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures 59 Forgetting An inability to retrieve information
due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval. 60 Encoding Failure We cannot remember what we do not encode. 61 Which penny is real? http://www.exploratorium.edu/exhibits/common_cents/
62 Retrieval Failure Although the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin). 63
Interference Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information. 64 Retroactive Interference leep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, i leads to better recall. 65
Motivated Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories. Suppression - forgetting ones thoughts and memories consciously. Culver Pictures Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxietyarousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Sigmund Freud 66 Why do we forget? Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages. 67
Memory Construction While tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent. Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. 68 Misinformation and Imagination Effects
Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Depiction of the actual accident. 69 Misinformation Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
70 Memory Construction A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit). 71 Source Amnesia Source Amnesia: Attributing an event to
the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution). 72 False Memories Repressed or Constructed? Some adults actually do forget childhood episodes of abuse. False Memory Syndrome A condition in which a persons identity and relationships center around a false but strongly believed memory of a
traumatic experience, which is sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists. 73 Childrens Eyewitness Recall Childrens eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse. 74
Memories of Abuse Are memories of abuse repressed or constructed? Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories. However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be constructed. 75 Constructed Memories
Loftus research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories http://www.ted.com/talks/elizabeth_loftus_the_fiction_of_memory ( . Don Shrubshell 76 Consensus on Childhood Abuse Leading psychological associations of the world agree on the following concerning childhood sexual abuse:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Injustice happens. Incest and other sexual abuse happens. People may forget. Recovered memories are commonplace. Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable. 6. Memories of things happening before 3 years
of age are unreliable. 7. Memories, whether real or false, are emotionally upsetting. 77 Improving Memory 1. Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall. 2. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material. 3. Make material personally meaningful. 4. Use mnemonic devices:
associate with peg words something already stored make up a story chunk acronyms 78 Improving Memory 5. Activate retrieval cues mentally recreate the situation and mood. 6. Recall events while they are fresh
before you encounter misinformation. 7. Minimize interference: LWA-Dann Tardiff/ Corbis 1. Test your own knowledge. 2. Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know. 79
Make a presentation to teach other students how to memorize the following passage: Words have a magical power. They can bring either the greatest happiness or deepest despair; they can transfer knowledge from teacher to student; words enable the orator to sway his audience and dictate its decisions. Words are capable of arousing the strongest emotions and prompting all mens actions.- Sigmond Freud (1938)
In your presentation include the following information: What is the title of the memory technique? Why is this an effective memory tool? What are the steps to this tool? Why should I use this tool over any other tool? How can I use it to memorize the passage- describe the process. (For example; if you choose the Method of Loci, you might say to imagine your house. In the door stands the word Word. The word word is wearing a magicians hat, and is flexing, etc.)
At least two pictures to illustrate the memory technique. *You will need to use your technique to remember the passage for the test in order to test its effectiveness.*
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