Memory -

Memory -

MEMORY Aims for lesson 1 Recap on what we know about memory Introduce Multi-Store Memory Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Introduce the Sensory Store Learn about the Sperling study What is memory?

Definition Memory is the term given to the structures and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information This information can include facts, experiences, Memory is the skills or habits means by which we draw on our past experiences in

order to use this information in the present Why is memory important? Clive Wearing Case study: Clive Wearing - Strengths? - Weaknesses?

Memory is broken down into three key processes Encoding Storage Retrieval Encoding this refers to how we input sensory information so that we can make sense of it Storage- this is how information is stored into your memory to be used at a later time Retrieval refers to the ability to recover information from storage

Recall The ability to retrieve stored information. Recognition : When you know something is

familiar Reintegrati on: When you construct a memory using cues There are two main types of memory

Short Term Memory (STM) Long Term Memory (LTM) Research indicates an additional type of memory: Sensory Memory Multi-Store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968)

Outlines how early cognitive psychologists describe the process of memory As memory is intangible a model is used to helps us understand the system of how the memory works Research is conducted and evidence used to test the assumptions of a model The model is then either supported, updated or What psychologists are interest in is. Encoding the form in which the

information is stored Capacity how much information can be stored Duration how long information can be stored for Basic structure to the Multi-Store Model Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Sensory register - encoding Information is gathered by the senses

and enters the sensory register All information must go through this stage ECHOIC ICONIC MEMORY: visual info from the eyes things you SEE. Stored as images. Top tip:

Iconic = EYEconic MEMORY: auditory input from the ears things you HEAR. Stored as sounds. Top tip: Echoic

= Ear Information is stored in raw, unprocessed form with separate sensory stores for different sensory inputs How its stored

according to the sensory inputs Activity 1: Key terms Sensory register a brief store for sensory information

If attended to, it will pass onto the STM If not attended to, it will fade quickly leaving no lasting impression

Sensory register - capacity The capacity for each sensory memory store in the sensory register is very large Information is unprocessed and highly detailed Sensory register - capacity The next slide demonstrates your iconic sensory memory at work Keep your eyes fixed on the slide and concentrate It will flash on and off quickly try to remember

everything on it. When you see the smiley face write everything down 7 1 V F

X L 5 3 B 4

W 7 How many letters were you able to recall? Sensory memory capacity continued This was based on an experiment Sperling (1960) Aim: to investigate sensory

register memory store Procedure: Part 1: Participants presented with grid for less than 1 second and asked how many letters they could remember Findings: First instance, people were able to recall 45 letters from the whole grid Sperlings ppts claimed that they could see more than the four items reported, but they could not report all of them

because the array seemed to disappear as time passed Part 2: Before shown grid, ppts told a particular tone will follow the grid and this will be the row in which they will recall (high tone = top row, medium tone = middle row, low tone = bottom row) The tone was presented at the same time the letters were shown (remember the grid was

shown for less than 1 sec!) This allows ppts to focus enough to take in the specific row Sperling found that as long as the tone was sounded within a quarter of a second of the flash, ppts could report 3 out of 4 items on the row indicated Because the row selected was random, it assumes the ppts would be able to recall 75% of the total What does this mean??

In one ear and out the other The capacity is large However, the duration is small. Echoic memory (2 seconds) lasts longer than Iconic memory in the sensory register (0.5 seconds) Different sensory stores have different capacities and there is some evidence that duration decreases with age The short duration of SM makes it difficult to test. As soon

as a person starts writing, the memory trace has faded Task 2 140 characters or less 1. Describe the procedure of Sperling (1960) 2. Describe the findings of Sperling (1960) Important : Please

ensure to include all the important information Evaluation of Sperling (1960) One weakness of the study is that it was conducted in a laboratory environment. This means there were high levels of control. Due to the artificial nature of the study, the results lack ecological validity.

This means the findings cannot be generalised to a real life setting Evaluation of Sperling (1960) On the other hand, the artificial nature of the study allows the study to be replicated easily. In addition to this, the use of a laboratory environment allows for extraneous and independent variables to be controlled for. This allows for a cause and effect relationship to be established between the IV and the DV

Evaluation of Sperling (1960) One strength of the study was the use of repeated measures design. This meant each participant took part in each condition This eliminates participant characteristics from influencing results Evaluation of Sperling (1960) However, on the other hand, this allows for order effects. This is where the participants may become tired, bored or fed up by the second condition.

This may have worsened their performance. Additionally, this may have led to practice effects where the participants performance is enhanced as they have saw the letters before. Evaluation of Sperling (1960) Finally, this study falls short as it uses a random set of letters to test memory. The use of a random set of letters is uncommon in everyday life to remember. It lacks meaning to the participants. This is called mundane realism

Task 3: Jigsaw learning Part 1: Write as much as you know about your section Part 2: All the number 1s sit together and share all the information they know about their section (Same for 2s, 3s and 4s) Part 3: Go back to your normal seats and share your information with those around

you. For example, if you are a 1, share all your information

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