Mendel and Heredity Ms. Hughes Bio Mendels Breeding Experiments Genetics: is the science of heredity and the mechanism by which traits are passed from parents to offspring. Gregor Mendel lived in the 1800s in Austria. Mendel did breeding experiments
with the garden pea plant. Mendel was the first person to develop rules that accurately predict the patterns of heredity in pea plants. Modern genetics is based on Mendels explanations for the patterns of heredity in garden pea plants. Read the third paragraph on page 267.
Term cross define Purple and white mean what? Features of Pea Plants The garden pea plant is a good subject for studying heredity because the plant has contrasting traits, usually self-pollinates and grows easily.
Contrasting Traits Physical features that are inherited are called characters. A trait is one of several possible forms of a character. Mendel wanted to see what would happen when he crossed individuals that have different traits. In such a cross, the offspring that result are called hybrids.
Self-Pollination In garden pea plants each flower contains both male and female reproductive parts. This arrangement allows the plant to self pollinate, or fertilize itself. Pea plants can also reproduce through cross-pollination. Mendel removed the male part of the flowers to make sure they did not self pollinate.
Easy to Grow Small plant that needs little care and matures quickly. Also each plant produces many offspring. Many results can be compared for each type of cross. Recall that collecting repeated data is an important scientific method. Mendels First Experiment
A monohybrid cross is a cross that is done to study one pair of contrasting traits. Mendels first experiments used monohybrid crosses and were carried out in three steps. A generation is a group of offspring from a given from a given group of parents. Mendels First Experiments
Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Page 269
Create a flow chart of the events in this experiment Ratios in Mendels Results All of Mendels F1 plants expressed the same trait for a given character. The contrasting trait had disappeared! But when the F1 plants were allowed to self pollinate, the missing trait reappeared in some of the F2 plants. F2 ratio 3:1
For each of the seven characters that Mendel studied, he found a similar 3:1 ratio of contrasting traits in the F2 generation. Activity Draw, label and explain Mendels first experiment and the three generations.
Homework Take Mendels experiment and put it into your own words using a comic strip, story book or song. Mendels Theory Mendelian theory of heredity, form the foundation of modern genetics. Mendelian theory explains simple patterns
of inheritance. In these patterns, two of several versions of a gene combine and result in one of several possibilities. Alternate Versions of Genes Before Mendels experiments, many people thought that the trait of offspring were always a blend of the traits from parents.
This would mean that a tall plant crossed with a short plant would make a medium plant. Today scientist know that different versions of genes. Each version of a gene is called an allele. Several versions of a gene are called alleles Gene for the type of hair
Different versions are alleles wavy , straight, curly Height character/gene Tall, short, medium allele/trait One allele from each parent Mendel also noticed that traits can come from either parent. The reason is related to
meiosis. When gametes form, each pair of alleles is separated. Only one of the pair is passed on to offspring. Dominant and Recessive Alleles. In Mendels experiments one trait always seemed to win over the other trait. Only one was fully expressed as a trait. The
other allele had no effect on the organisms physical form. In this case, the expressed allele is called dominant. The allele that is not expressed when the dominant allele is present is called recessive. Random Segregation of Alleles
Chromosome pairs split up randomly, either one of a pair of homologous chromosomes might end up in any one gamete. As only chance decides which alleles will be passed on through gametes. In modern terms, the law of segregation holds that when an organism produces gametes, each pair of alleles is separated and each gamete has an equal chance of receiving either one of the alleles.
Mendels Findings in Modern Terms Although Mendel did not use the term allele, he used a code of letters to represent the function of alleles. A dominant allele is shown as a capital letter. Genotype and Phenotype
Offspring do not show a trait for every allele that they receive. Instead combinations of alleles determine traits. The set of alleles that an individual has far a character is called the genotype. The trait that results from a set of alleles is the phenotype. Genotype determines phenotype. Homozygous and Heterozygous
If an individual has two of the same alleles of a certain gene the individual is homozygous. If an individual has two different alleles of a certain gene the individual is heterozygous. Activity Complete doodle definitions for the
following terms: Independent assortment Homozygous Heterozygous Genotype Phenotype Recessive dominant Mendels second experiment
A dihybrid cross, involves two characters (shape and size). Independent assortment: In modern terms the law of independent assortment holds that during gamete formation, the alleles of each gene segregate independently. Genes linked on chromosomes: Genes are said to be linked when they are close together on chromosomes. They will rarely be separated because they are too close to each other.
Modeling Mendels Laws Farmers, gardeners, animal keepers and biologists need to make predictions when they try to breed organisms that have desired characteristics. Using Punnett Squares A punnett square is a model that predicts
the likely outcomes of a genetic cross. A punnett square shows all of the genotypes that could result from a given cross. Analyzing Monohybrid Crosses Recall that this cross involves parents who each have a trait that contrasts with the trait of the other parent The parents may be homozygous or heterozygous.
Crosses Monohybrid homozygous crosses: All expressed as dominant Monohybrid heterozygous crosses: 1:2:1 ratio
Using punnett square and all applicable vocabulary explain Mendels first experiment Using Probability A punnett square shows the possible outcomes of a cross but it can also be used to calculate the probability of each outcome. Probability is the likelihood that a specific event will occur.
Probability formulas can be used to predict the probabilities that specific alleles will be passed on to offspring. Using a Pedigree A Simple way to model inheritance is to use a pedigree (a family history that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations). Genetic Disorder: a disease or disorder that
can be inherited. Carriers have alleles for disorders but do not show symptoms. They can pass on the disorder though. Pedigrees A pedigree can help answer questions about three aspects of inheritance:
Sex linkage Dominance heterozygosity Sex-linked Gene A sex-linked gene is located on either an x or y chromosome, but most are located on the x chromosomes because its longer and contains more. A recessive allele is not expressed in the female unless she has both.
It is however expressed in the male because he only has that trait.l Traits that are not expressed equally in both sexes are sex-linked. Page 281 Read dominant or recessive Read heterozygous or homozygous
Take notes!!! Activity We will use the following information to create a pedigree from a punnett square.
Now using the following genotypes create a pedigree using BB x bb Bb x Bb Beyond Medelian Heredity Read Section 4 chapter 12 and take notes!!! Only pages 282 and 283
Important concepts Polygenic Inheritance Incomplete dominance Multiple alleles Codominance
Polygenic Inheritance When several genes affect a character it is called a polygenic character. For example eye color is affected by several genes. One gene controls the amount of brown you see in the eye while the other controls the amount of green you see in the eye.
Incomplete Dominance When one trait is not completely dominant over the other. So when the heterozygote is a mix between the two homozygotes (homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive). Red flower mixed with a white flower makes a pink flower. Multiple Alleles
Read this section aloud. Codominance: a condition in which both dominant alleles are fully expressed when both are present. Example AB blood type in humans.
Environmental Affects Phenotype can be affected by conditions in the environment such as nutrients and temperature Nutrition in humans can affect height which is partially hereditary.
Temperature affects pigments depending on time of year in the Arctic Fox. Genes linked with chromosomes The closer you are the more likely you will be expressed together.
Some genes are only located on one chromosomes such as X and Y the sex chromosomes Activity Create a doodle definition
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