Military Psychology Ch. 1 Disclaimer Information and opinions expressed by Maj Dhillon and other military/government employees providing lectures are not intended/should not be taken as representing the policies and views of the Department of Defense, its component services, or the US Government. Military Psychology
The science and application of human behavior as it relates to the military. Composed of 2 major areas: Clinical and Operational Field developing from demand of an increasingly mobile and modern military Psychology as Old as Warfare General Patton, WWII deceived Luftwaffe on allies position, strategy and force strength Trojan Horse
Sun Tzu, the Art of Warimpact of length of conflict on troops POW Propaganda during Korean War History of Military Psychology (MP) MP and psych in US are linked in growth/development MP tends to grow in spurts based on mil and psych demands of each conflict Formal psych only recently had a place in mil Though clinical (document disorders since Civil
War), organizational (selection) , and operational (PSYOPS) concepts intertwined with development of war http://www.psywarrior.com/DivideandConquer.html Revolutionary War Colonials employed PSYOP campaigns encouraging Red Coats to desert via leaflets. Designed to cause rift between Os and Es. Develop In-Group vs. Out-group w/in British ranks
Civil War (1861-1865) United States Government Hospital for the Insane established in 1850s First time efforts made to address impact of war and combat on soldiers First time docs treated conditions like phantom limb pain, acute/chronic mania, and suicidality First recording of substance use disorders related to mil servicemedical treatment for pain Veterans treated at USGHI, cared for at home or, held in
jail World War I (1914-1918) Official birth of MP Yerkes (then APA pres), Cattell, Thorndike, Watson, and Hall convened to figure how psychology could help war effort Yerkes commissioned as a major, by end of war 132 psychs in Division of Psychology at the Office of the Surgeon general
World War I (1914-1918) First focused effort to screen recruits Army Alpha (literate) Beta (illiterate) Precursor to Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale First time hundreds could be tested at one time Emphasized need for standardized measures Woodworth Personality Data Sheet utilized Yerkes developed assessment/selection process for officers and special assignments
Psych testing potential grabbed attention of private industry World War I (1914-1918) Neurosurgery specialty established, yielding need for cognitive rehabilitation Aviation Psychology bornscreening for pilots most likely to complete training and avoid accidents Successful pilots: high levels of intelligence, emotionally stable, perception of tilt (vestibular
sensitivity) and mental alertness World War I (1914-1918) War neuroses identified (Shell Shock signature injury) Appropriate treatment recognized as cognitive restructuring Long before cognitive theory formally developed Forward psychiatry used based on Proximity, Immediacy, Expectancy (PIE) approach
PIE provides foundation for todays versions of combat stress interventions World War I (1914-1918) WWI marks first organized use of chemical weapons Mustard Gas Gas Hysteria observed for the first time as a psychological response to the chemical weapon threat
World War II (1939-1945) Influx of German and Jewish psychologists APA Division 19Military Psychology Psychologists in all branches of military and departments of Veterans Affairs, Commerce, National Research Council, and Psychological Warfare Services Psychological selection used for operatives of Office of Strategic Services (now CIA) World War II (1939-1945)
MP application in a variety of areas Edwin Borings Psychology for the Fighting Man (1943) a practical guide, importance of basic needs, morale, adjustment to mil service Dearth of forward mental health Over reliance on screening Army General Classification Test Increased use of personality measures and first use of MMPI 40% early discharges due to combat fatigue
Solidified necessity of forward mental health treatment and preparation for mental health casualties stateside World War II (1939-1945) Inadequate diagnostic system led to eventual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Surge in head trauma led to significant developments in neuropsychology Field did not re-emerge until 20-30 years later with increase head injuries due to car accidents
1941 Army Air Force Aviation Psychology Program selection, man-machine interface Not enough MDs to go around so 1st time MPs used in clinical capacity Psych internships: 1946 in VA & 1949 in Army 1947 MP get permanent AD status, USAF is its own branch Korean War (1950-1953) MPs in combat zones, ship, overseas Prisoner of War issues
Brainwashing, propaganda, torture, malnourishment, inhumane treatment Major developments in survival schools Poorly planned Mental Health treatment at frontlines=25% of troops were psych casualties After use of combat stress management, 80-90% return to duty (RTD) Korean War (1950-1953) Army and AF developed technical manual for MPs
Continued work on selection for specific jobs and officers After war, Army focused on studying motivation, leadership, morale & psych warfare AF and Navy established research centers focused on human engineering for performance enhancement in a variety of environments, human conditions, stressors, and equipment Vietnam War (1955-1973) 1968 Armed Services Vocational Aptitude
Battery (ASVAB) Aptitude tool, influences technical training field Considered a reliable source of premorbid intellectual functioning Forward MH utiized Vietnam War (1955-1973) Service member population Involuntary Lower SES, uneducated
More character disorders High rates of substance use problems Poor unit cohesion deployed individually High PTSD rates post war Environment Popular opinion: highly tolerant of drug use Unsupportive of troops
Jungle warfare Horrific POW treatment Military lacked response to noncombat critical incidents Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (1990-1991) High numbers of enemy encounters Exposure to: Possible chem/bio weapons, Toxic substances, desert climate/wildlife,
Inoculations Low hygiene opportunity Forward MH care First psych on Navy ship Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (1990-1991) Gulf War Syndrome Unexplained symptoms Possibly due to inoculations, toxic substances, psychological trauma
Controversial Conclusion: symptoms due to service member attributions of symptoms and previous psychological distress Peacekeeping Operations Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia Similar to combat operations Unhygienic conditions, unfriendly nationals, come under fire, separated from family, relationship problems Those with pre-existing mental health, substance use
problems have increased suicide risk Operational stress support for prevention, symptom management, treatment, critical incident stress management, outreach to destigmatize help-seeking behavior Operations Iraqi/Enduring Freedom Psychologists operational roles expanded Support for conventional and special forces units Command consultation, selection, prevention, family
support Psychologists deployed to main and forward operating bases (FOBs) Personnel Recovery operations MH focus on prevention, focused treatment (short term, empirically validated), command involvement/unit support
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