Mineral Chemistry GY111 Physical Geology Atoms & Atomic Particles An atom is the smallest component of an element that can retain the properties of that element Atoms are composed of fundamental particles: Protons Neutrons Electrons
Protons & Neutrons always reside in the center of the atom termed the nucleus Electrons are always located in the electron cloud (orbitals) where they orbit the nucleus Example Atom: Carbon Carbon: contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons in the nucleus, and 6 electrons in 2 orbital shells Subatomic Particles
Proton: has a mass of 1 and a positive charge Neutron: has a mass of 1 and a neutral charge Electron: has a mass of 0 and a negative charge All elements in the periodic table can be considered to have a neutral charge in their elemental form, therefore, they must have the
same number of protons and electrons Periodic Table of the Elements Elements are identified by their atomic number (ex. Carbon = 6) Atomic Number & Weight Atomic Number: the sum of the protons in the atom; The number uniquely identifies the element. Atomic Mass: the sum of the protons and
neutrons in the nucleus of the atom Isotope number: same as atomic mass, C12: 6 protons and 6 neutrons in nucleus C14: 6 protons and 8 neutrons in nucleus Isotopes The isotope number (also termed mass number) of an atom is the sum of the protons and neutrons. Isotope Carbon 14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Isotope Carbon 12 has 6 protons and
6 neutrons. Chemists have determined that 99.99% of carbon atoms are C12, and most of the rest are C13 so on average the atomic weight of Carbon = 0.9999 * 12 + 0.0001 * 13 = 12.01 grams/mole. Ions When an atom in its elemental state receives or gives up one or more electrons it is then termed an Ion
Positively charged ions are cations Negatively charged ions are anions The ability to give up or take on electrons in an atom is dependent on the atomic number (i.e. the number of electrons in the electron shells) Electron Shell Configurations The first 3 electron shells are filled by 2, 8 and 8 electrons. A specific element is
chemically stable when its outermost shell is completely filled by electrons In the Carbon example the outer shell needs 8 electrons but Carbon has only 4 in the outermost shell because of its atomic number of 6 (2 electrons in the 1st shell, 4 in the 2nd) Therefore Carbon will either
have a +4 ionic charge if it gives up all the outer shell electrons, or a -4 charge if it receives 4 to fill the outer shell Rock-Forming Element Valence Oxygen (O): Atomic # = 8; 6 electrons in 2nd shell = -2 anion. Silicon (Si): Atomic # = 14; 4 electrons in 3rd shell = +4 cation. Aluminum (Al): Atomic # = 13; 3 electrons in 3rd shell =
+3 cation. Iron (Fe): Atomic # = 26; 2 or 3 electrons in 4th shell = +2 or +3 cation (ferric or ferrous Fe). Magnesium (Mg): Atomic # = 12; 2 electrons in 3rd shell = +2 cation. Calcium (Ca): Atomic # = 20; 2 electrons in 4th shell = +2 cation. Sodium(Na) & Potassium(K): Atomic #s = 11 & 19; 1 electron in outer shell = +1 cation. Relationship of Electron Shells to
Periodic Table The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in columns of like electron shell configuration Example: The Alkali Earth metals (H, Li, Na, K, etc.) all have one electron in the outer shell Example: The Halogens (F, Cl, Br, etc.) all have 7 electrons in the outer most shell
The Alkalis all tend to form +1 charged cations when bonding with other elements; The Halogens then to form -1 anions Chemical Bonding Ionic: loss or gain of electrons forming cations and anions (allows material to dissolve in a polar solvent such as H2O) Covalent: electron sharing in outer shell (strongest bond) Metallic: electron sharing in inner shell (allows for conduction of electricity)
Ionic Bonding Example NaCl: note that Na (atomic number=11) will form a +1 cation, and that Cl (atomic number=17) will form a -1 anion. Covalent Bonding Example Diamond has strong covalent bonding in all direction by sharing electrons in the outer shell of each Carbon atom
Metallic Bonding Example Gold (Au) is the best conductor of electricity because of its metallic bonding Common Rock Forming Cations and Anions Cations: positively charged Anions: negatively charged Ionic Radius: size of the charged ion Mineral
Solid: cannot be liquid or gas. Inorganic: cannot be composed of living or once-living material. Naturally Occurring: cannot be man-made. Crystalline: possesses an ordered internal structure and a definite chemical composition. Rock Forming Minerals
Silicates: contain Si and O plus other rock forming elements Fundamental structure is SiO4 tetrahedron The geometry of how
the tetrahedrons link controls the properties of the silicate mineral Other Major Rock Forming Mineral Groups Carbonates: CaCO3 (calcite) Oxides: Fe3O4 (magnetite) Sulfides: FeS2 (pyrite) Sulfates: CaSO4 (anhydrite)
Halides: CaF2 (Fluorite) Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness Cleavage (Fracture) Luster (Metallic vs. Non-metallic)
Vitreous: glassy Resinous: like tree sap Greasy: oily Pearly: like pearls Silky: like silk Adamantine: luster of diamond Color Specific Gravity
Crystal Form (Habit) Mohs Hardness Scale Scale allows for the determination of the hardness of a mineral Exam Summary For Exams know Subatomic particle definitions Definitions of ion, cation, anion, isotope, atomic number, atomic weight
Definitions and examples of ionic, covalent and metallic bonding Silicate structures and examples (i.e. isolated tetrahedra=olivine, chain=pyroxene, etc.) Chemical groups of rock-forming minerals and an example of each (Silicates=quartz, Carbonates=calcite; sulfides=pyrite, etc.) Mohs Hardness scale Definition of physical properties of minerals (color, hardness, streak, etc.) 5 examples of industrial uses of minerals. Electron shell configuration and valence in rock forming elements.
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