Mitosis and Meiosis - AP Biology

Mitosis and Meiosis - AP Biology

Mitosis and Meiosis Biology, where multiplication is the same as division Cell Replication All new cells come from existing cells Cells must divide to allow us to grow, repair damaged

tissues and reproduce Chromosomes Segments of DNA containing many thousand genes Most mammals have 2 sets of chromosomes that code for the same set of characters

Aka are diploid Haploid vs. Diploid Haploid Diploid 1 set of chromosomes (n)

2 set of chromosomes (2n) Sperm/egg Every cell but the gametes Also male bees, stages of plant and

fungal life cycle Stages of plant/fungi life cycle, female bees Homologous Chromosomes Contain different versions of the same gene (aka

alleles) One inherited from mother, one inherited from father Chromosome Terminology Types of Cell Division

Mitosis Meiosis Creates identical cells Creates haploid cells with half the

chromosomes Growth, repair, asexual reproduction Creates gametes (sex cells) Interphase

DNA is replicated before both mitosis and meiosis in interphase Cell also grows bigger and makes proteins necessary for new cells Cytokinesis Splitting of cell Occurs after nucleus division

(mitosis/meios is) Overview Mitosis Meiosis One cell division

Two cell divisions 2 daughter cells 4 daughter cells Each contains a single copy of all the

chromosomes Each contain a single copy of half the chromosomes (no homologous chromosomes) Mitotic Cycle

Checkpoints At certain points the cell cycle is halted until a go signal is sent Cyclin must bind to Cyclin Dependent Kinases Ensures proper timing of stages, prevents errors and cancers

Mitosis Meiosis Meiosis I homologous chromosomes separated 2 Major Events Segregation of Homologous

Chromosomes One homolog ends up in each gamete, leaving the cell with 23 unpaired chromosomes Independent Assortment Which homolog is inherited for

each pair is entirely random Meiosis II Sister Chromatids Separate Why does it look like some of the chromosomes have been switched? They have!

During meiosis, some of the homologous chromosomes are exchanged Increases genetic diversity The Importance of All This Mitosis creates

new identical cells so every cell in your body is the same Meiosis creates incredibly unique gametes, increasing genetic diversity

More diversity = more chances of someone surviving You Are A Unique Snowflake You randomly get 1 of every one of the 23 chromosomes from your father and from your mother So there were 223 possible combos of sperm and 223 possible eggs So about 8,388,608 possible sperms could have led to you

So there were about 70,368,470,000,000 possible combinations you could have been (not even counting crossing over!) You really are one in a trillion! Your Task In a method of your choosing animate out both mitosis and meiosis (1-3 people) Focus less on the stage names than on what is occurring over the process

So make a flipbook, gif, video etc. demonstrating the continuous process of the cell cycles Your initial cell should contain 3 pairs of homologous chromosomes (6 total) Label them 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B. Color code them

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