Mitosis PowerPoint

Mitosis PowerPoint

Cell DivisionMitosis Notes Cell Division process by which a cell divides into 2 new cells Why do cells need to divide? 1.Living things grow by producing more cells, NOT because each cell increases in size 2.Repair of damaged tissue

3.If cell gets too big, it cannot get enough nutrients into the cell and wastes out of the cell The original cell is called the parent cell; 2 new cells are called daughter cells Before cell division occurs , the cell replicates (copies) all of its DNA, so each daughter cell gets complete set of genetic information from parent cell

Each daughter cell is exactly like the parent cell same kind and number of chromosomes as the original cell 2 Daughter Cells Parent Cell Many organisms, especially unicellular

organisms, reproduce by means of cell division called asexual reproduction Ex: bacteria DNA DNA is located in the nucleus and controls all cell activities including cell division Long and thread-like DNA in a non-dividing cell is called chromatin Doubled, coiled, short DNA in a dividing cell is called

chromosome Consists of 2 parts: chromatid and centromere o 2 identical sister chromatids attached at an area in the middle called a centromere o When cells divide, sister chromatids

separate and 1 goes to each new cell Chromatin to chromosomes illustration: Chromatin Duplicates itself Why does DNA need to change

from chromatin to chromosome? Coils up into chromosomes More efficient division Chromosome number Every organism has its own specific number of

chromosomes Examples: Human = 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs Dog = 78 chromosomes or 39 pairs Goldfish = 94 chromosomes or 47 pairs Lettuce = 18 chromosomes or 9 pairs All somatic (body) cells in an organism have the same kind and number of chromosomes Examples: Human = 46 chromosomes

Human skin cell = 46 chromosomes Human heart cell = 46 chromosomes Human muscle cell = 46 chromosomes Fruit fly = 8 chromosomes Fruit fly skin cell = 8 chromosomes Fruit fly heart cell = 8 chromosomes Fruit fly muscle cell = 8 chromosomes Cell Cycle -- series of events cells go through as

they grow and divide Cell grows, prepares for division, then divides to form 2 daughter cells each of which then begins the cycle again Interphaseperiod of cell growth and development DNA replication (copying) occurs during Interphase During Interphase the cell also grows, carries out normal cell activities, replicates all other organelles

The cell spends most of its life cycle in Interphase Mitosis division of the nucleus into 2 nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes Mitosis occurs in all the somatic (body) cells So each new daughter cell Why does mitosis occur? has nucleus with a complete set of chromosomes

4 phases of nuclear division (mitosis), directed by the cells DNA (PMAT) Prophase Metaphase(Middle) Anaphase(Apart) Anaphase(Apart)

Telophase(Two) Prophase Chromosomes coil up Nuclear envelope disappears Spindle fibers form

Metaphase(Middle) Chromosomes line up in middle of cell Spindle fibers connect to chromosomes Anaphase(Apart)

Chromosome copies divide Spindle fibers pull chromosomes to opposite poles Telophase(Two) Chromosomes uncoil Nuclear envelopes

form 2 new nuclei are formed Spindle fibers disappear Cytokinesis the division of the rest of the cell (cytoplasm and organelles) after the nucleus divides

In animal cells the cytoplasm pinches in In plant cells a cell plate forms After mitosis and cytokinesis, the cell returns to Interphase to continue to grow and perform regular cell activities Summary: Cell Cycle

Interphase Mitosis (PMAT) Cytokinesis When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells

Cell Division Control DNA controls all cell activities including cell division Some cells lose their ability to control their rate of cell division the DNA of these cells has become

damaged or changed (mutated) These super-dividing cells form masses called tumors Benign tumors are not cancerous these cells do not spread to other parts of the body Malignant tumors are cancerous these cells break loose and can invade and destroy healthy

tissue in other parts of the body (called metastasis) Cancer is not just one disease, but many diseases over 100 different types of cancers

Phase Chromosome Appearance & Location Important Events Interphase

DNA copies itself; chromatin DNA replication, cell grows and replicates organelles Chromosomes coil up Nuclear envelope disappears, spindle fibers

form Chromosomes line up in the middle Spindle fibers connect to chromosomes Anaphase

Chromosome copies divide and move apart Telophase Chromosomes uncoil back into chromatin

Cytokinesis Chromatin Spindle fibers pull chromosome copies apart to opposite poles Nuclear envelopes reform, 2 new nuclei are formed,

spindle fibers disappear Division of the rest of the cell: cytoplasm and organelles Prophase Metaphase

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • A Brief Introduction to Quantum Chemistry

    A Brief Introduction to Quantum Chemistry

    Slide 3 Classical Mechanics ข้อจำกัดของ Classical Mechanics Planck's Hypothesis Bohr's Model of Atom Wave-Particle Duality Uncertainty Principle Quantum Mechanics Schrödinger's Equation Solutions of Schrödinger's Equation Hydrogenic Wave Functions Atomic Orbital Electronic Configuration Wave-Functions of Many ...
  • DIAs Florida Trend Advertisement DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE The most

    DIAs Florida Trend Advertisement DOWNTOWN JACKSONVILLE The most

    "The most promising [economic development] appear throughout Jacksonville's central civic core, which sits astride the right turn the St. Johns River makes as it flows north towards the Atlantic Ocean.The riverfront creates large swaths of urban waterfront property with appealing...
  • Presentazione standard di PowerPoint

    Presentazione standard di PowerPoint

    Sueño e historia di Angelo Cantarutti e Gustavo Valencia, Santiago de Chile. Cinquanta preghiere bibliche tradotte e commentate da Don Gino Bressan , Velar, Bergamo. Prendi il largo.
  • Include a title slide with title of project (your topic ...

    Include a title slide with title of project (your topic ...

    "Racist and sexist stereotypes of women are used in the sex industry to market the women. Men come to expect stereotypical behavior from the women they buy in prostitution. Also, buying women from different races and nationalities gives men the...
  • How to teach an Ofsted Outstanding lesson (How to play the game)

    How to teach an Ofsted Outstanding lesson (How to play the game)

    Be able to plan an outstanding lesson and be able give examples of elements that make up a really good one. SOME COULD. Be able to explain what Ofsted are looking for in an outstanding lesson and describe how their...
  • Discipline-Based Education Research: Findings and Implications King Fahd

    Discipline-Based Education Research: Findings and Implications King Fahd

    SUSAN SINGER (Chair), Carleton College. ROBERT BEICHNER, North Carolina State University. STACEY LOWERY BRETZ, Miami University. MELANIE COOPER, Clemson University. SEAN DECATUR, Oberlin College. JAMES FAIRWEATHER, Michigan State University. KENNETH HELLER, University of Minnesota. KIM KASTENS, Columbia University. MICHAEL MARTINEZ
  • Warm Up

    Warm Up

    Review . Video on electrical circuits . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=js7Q-r7G9ug. While watching the video, complete the journal entry questions (on your desk) on ...
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: End state functioning

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: End state functioning

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: End state functioning Dr Matthew Smout Centre for Treatment of Anxiety and Depression South Australia * Foa et al: EXRP-only arm Van oppen: EXRP only Lindsay: EXRP Cottraux: BT McLean: ERP and CBT combined for gender,...