Physical and Chemical Properties Properties of Matter-Words to Know Mass A measure of how much matter is in an object. Weight
A measure of the force of gravity on an object. Volume The amount of space that matter occupies. Density The measurement of how much mass of a substance is
contained in a given volume. Mass/Volume I Density Matter Well, we know that all matter has mass (its made of stuff) and it has volume (takes up an amount of space). It doesnt matter if its a flea or a
whale its made of matter. The most enormous stars and the tiniest, microscopic air molecules are matter, too. A. Matter Flowchart MATTER yes MIXTURE yes Is the composition
uniform? Homogeneous Mixture (solution) no Can it be separated by physical means? PURE SUBSTANCE
no Heterogeneous Mixture yes Can it be decomposed by chemical means? Compound
no Element All substances have properties Including people! Example: People can be identified by their
Face (shape, Voice Height Finger prints Teeth DNA
expressions) Eye color Hair color What are properties? Matter has observable and measurable qualities. We can use general properties to identify substances. Two basic types of properties of matter: Physical properties and Chemical
properties: Physical Properties Physical properties are used to identify, describe and classify matter. Characteristic of a substance that can be observed (using your senses) without changing the substance into something else. States of Matter
There are different states of matter. No, not like Texas, Oklahoma, Georgia. States of matter are also known as phases (a physical state of matter). Elements and compounds can move from one phase to another phase when special physical forces are present. Solid Liquid Gas SOLID
LIQUID GAS Freezing point The temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid. Boiling point The boiling point of an element or compound
means the temperature at which the liquid form of an element or compound is at equilibrium with the gaseous form. the boiling point of water is 100 degrees Celsius. Melting point The temperatures at which the solid
form of the element or compound is at equilibrium with the liquid form. Basically the range at which the solid changes its state The melting point of into a liquid. water is 0 degrees Celsius
More EXAMPLES Physical Properties Other physical properties include:
Color Hardness Odor Taste State of matter Texture Luster (shine) Flexibility
Other physical properties include: Heat conductivity Electrical conductivity Solubility (ability to dissolve in water.) Shape Viscosity Ductility
Malleability COLOR Well, it might be pretty simple to say that a frog is green or jeans are blue or Joe is red, but theres some pretty technical reasons for why things have colors. The point is that you can describe a substances color without changing it into a new substance. LUSTER
Ooohhhlook at that biscuit. Ooohhhlook at this gold ring. I desire the one on the left for its tastiness. I desire the one on the right for its LUSTER. Luster describes how shiny a substance is. TEXTURE Some things are smooth.
Others are rough. Thats texture for you. ODOR A substance that gives off an odor, whether good or bad, isnt being changed as it does so! E. Odor describes the smell of a substance.
HARDNESS This one can be a little confusing. Youve probably heard that the hardest substance on Earth is ___________. That means that a diamond can cut any other substance you can think of, even metals. The only thing that can cut a diamond is a slightly more pure diamond! However, that doesnt mean that diamonds are stronger than anything else. Id much rather live in a brick or steel house than a diamond
one. Keep your bricks. Ill take the diamonds! CONDUCTIVITY Some substances allow forms of energy, such as heat, sound, and electricity, to flow through them very easily. Apparently, Joe is one of those substances. These substances are very useful for things like:
Conductivity, contd. But other substances are useful to us because theyre NOT good conductors. We call those insulators. G. Conductivity describes how well a substance allows heat or electricity to flow through it. Low conductivity substances are called insulators. MALLEABILITY What do these substances have in
common? If you said that they can be pounded with a mallet or hammer or fist or into new shapes easily, then ayoure right!can be formed H.forehead Malleability describes
how easily substance into new shapes. Opposite of brittle. DUCTILITY What do THESE substances have in common? Well, of coursetheyre all ductile! That just means they can be stretched or drawn into wires without falling apart or breaking. I.
Ductility describes how well a substance can be pulled into thin wires. MAGNETISM Im not sure how much to say about this. Some substances are magnetic, others arent. J. Magnetism describes if a substance attracts or repels magnets.
SOLUBILITY What happens if you take sugar, salt, or kool-aid powder and stir it into water? But you havent made a new substance. The kool-aid and water have just mixed super well because the kool-aid dissolves so easily in water. Chemical Properties
Chemical properties are characteristics involved when a substance interacts with another substance to change its chemical make-up. Flammability Rusting Creating a new Reactivity with chemical water product
Creating gas bubbles pH Chemical Changes Chemical change: a change that occurs causing the identity of the substance to change DOES result in the production of a new substance CANNOT be reversed by physical
means A chemical change is called a chemical reaction Can you think of ways I can make chemical changes to a piece of paper? Chemical Changes to Paper Burning it Pouring acid on it Eating it (digestion) yuck!
Clues to a Chemical Change (Reaction) As I burn a piece of paper, can you think of up to 6 clues that tell us that a chemical change has taken place? Clues to a Chemical Change Indicators of a chemical change: 1. Production of a gas 1. Fizzing, foaming, odor, bubbling
2. Production of energy (heat, light or sound) 1. Light given off, feels hot or cold, hear noise(s) 3. Temperature Change 1. Be careful with this one! 4. Unexpected Color change 1. Be careful with this one!
5. Production of a precipitate (solid) 1. Be careful with this one! 6. Production of a New Substance 1. Only if the atoms that make it up have been chemically altered! Chemical Change Examples Chemical change: a change that occurs causing the identity of the substance to change
DOES result in the production of a new substance Burning Digesting food Reacting with other substances Rusting, corroding, decomposing Is it Physical or Chemical? Change Melting cheese Burning wood Milk souring
Wadding up paper Bicycle rusting Physical Chemical Alike? Different? Draw a double bubble map in your notes to compare and contrast physical and chemical properties.
Compound A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio. Water and salt are 2 examples of compounds.
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