Mn na hireann Survival & Celebration In 19th Century Irish Art & Poetry & Song riu DONEGA L BELFA ST ire ATHLONE GALWAY DUBLI N
WATERFOR D DINGLE CORK goddess-queen of Ireland Name rooted in mythology of early Ireland when the first people arrived from Galicia [Spain]. Means: ABUNDANT LAND [Sanskrit] ire = Erin riu meets with Amergin at "center" of Ireland [Book of Ireland, published 1150 A.D.] Hibernia from early Celtic word Mn na hireann Maeve to the Two Marys
Medb [Maeve], Legendary Queen of Connacht, who insisted that she be equal in wealth with her husband Ailill and started the Tin B Cailnge ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") to steal Ulster's prize stud bull. Led her army with strength of a Medb, buried in a 40-foot high stone cairn on the summit of Knocknarea, Co Sligo Ulster Cycle stories: traditionally set The Sea Queen of Connaught Fearless leader by land and by sea, political pragmatist and tactician, rebel, pirate and matriarch. Grace O'Malley,
Grinne Mhaol by Gisela Fizato Award : Best Irish-language Book for Young the sixteenthcentury Irish woman provoked awe, anger, admiration, and fear in the English men who, by persuasion and by the sword, came to TWO QUEENS MEET: 1593 the two most powerful women in the British Isles, both political and military leaders of men, Grace & Elizabeth *********************** Grace acted as one Queen
meeting another and did not bow before Elizabeth. Grace was a thorn in England's side -- a "bleeding ulcer" who refused to submit. Her notorious exploits on the sea also posed a threat to England's purse. When Grace's son and half-brother were imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth's armies, she sailed to English soil to seek favor from Elizabeth and petitioned their release-successfully 1593. Grace O'Malley returned to a life of leadership and piracy on the west of Ireland and is remembered Elizabeth I & Grinne N Mhille London * * July 1593 Anna Haslam (ne Fisher; 18291922) Womens Rights, Famine Relief, International Peace Born in Cork, 1829, a Quaker Founded Irish Womens Suffrage
Association with Quaker husband Organized Famine relief International peace movement Invaluable help to research history of control. birth Died 1922, year Irish Free State extended the vote to all men & women over 21. Anna Haslam's contribution to the development of Irish feminist activism was enormous, as was that of the suffrage association she founded. She combined strong and effective Leadership with an ability to win the respect and admiration of many who disagreed with her on various issues. (Mary Cullen, historian). Constance Georgine Markievicz
ne Gore-Booth; (1868 1927): Politician, revolutionary nationalist, suffragette-hunger striker; took part in 1916 Easter Rising; first woman elected to British Parliament; helped to form first Dil ireann (1919). She died of TB contracted when she worked in the poorhouses Dublin. uring Easterof Rising, 1916, Countess D "I did what I thought was right, and I stand by it". One thing she had in abundance -physical courage; with that she was clothed as with a garment. Sen O'Casey Lieutenant Markievicz was second in command to Michael Mallin in St. Stephens Green, Dublin across from Shelburne Hotel.
Held out for six days, finally giving up only when the British brought them a copy of Pearse's surrender order. Taken to Kilmainham Gaol and sentenced to death by General John Maxwell, British Army officer and colonial governor in a field general court martial, a trial without defence or jury and in secret: Verdict: Guilty. Death by being shot, but commuted to life in prison solely and only Dr. Kathleen Lynn (1874-1955) :unparalleled contribution to paediatric medicineIrish Physicians. Dr. Kathleen Lynn, Co-founder of Teach Ultain: [St. Ultans Infants Hospital] first hospital set up by Irish women doctors in 1919; all doctors, nurses and staff were women. A Medical doctor, Sinn Fin politician, suffragette, patriot, revolutionary worked along side of Countess Markievicz, imprisoned in Kilmainham Jail for her part in the 1916 Easter Rising and then deported to England. Received State funeral, 1955. Eamon de Valera: 1920s: Irish womans place is in the home. Dr Lynn replied: We all believe that a womans
place is in the home, provided she has a home, and pointed out that not all women wanted to be tied to the kitchen sink. Dr Kathleen Lynn featured on RTE SUNDAY MISCELLANY, Sept. 15, 2013 >>LISTEN 6.13 mins Royal College of Maud Gonne, actress & Irish nationalist Till Ireland is free her people cannot be free or prosperous. I started Inghinidhe na hireann [Daughters of Ireland] in Dublin on Easter Sunday 1900 because when I went to join the National League, I was told A womans place is in the home. But dont be afraid, Miss Gonne, we will find plenty of work for you, if that is what you want. I was not satisfied, and said so. I know women can do some things better than men, and men can do some things better than we can; but I dont like this exclusion of women from the National fight, and the fact they should have to work through backdoor influence if they want to get things done. When in 1914 Inghinidhe na hireann was absorbed into Cumann na mBan, the womens
auxiliary of the Irish Volunteers led by Countess Markievicz. Some members joined the Irish Citizen Army to participate in the 1916 Rising. "I have always hated war and am by nature and philosophy a pacifist, but it is the English who are forcing war on us, Maude Gonne plays the Old Woman in Yeats/Gregory play: Cathleen N Houlihan -1902 A family whose son is about to be married is visited by a strange old woman Cathleen N Houlihan [a mythic figure - represents a free Ireland] who sings and Whengreen he met laments her 4 stolen Maude Gonne, fields.
said Yeats: all the trouble of my life began. English born Irish actress, revolutionary & Yeats muse Autobiography: A Servant of the Queen, reference to both a vision she had of the Irish queen of old, Cathleen (or Caitlin) N Houlihan - and an ironic title considering Gonne's Irish Cathleen N Houlihan lures the young man away from his betrothed and when the youth leaves the safety of his home to fight for her, she appears as an image of youth with "the walk of a queen," professing that of those who fight for her: "They shall be remembered forever, They shall be alive forever, They shall be speaking forever, The The seeds of change were sown for a change in the role and place of women in Irish society early 19 th
century 1. By making elementary education available to all (Education Act of 1831) 2. By remarkable vision and energy of women pioneers in religious orders whose mission was and is: in education, hospitals, work for social justice and structural change, especially in issues related to women and children, immigrants and ethnic communities, the environment and sustainable living, and human rights. Presentation Sisters in Ireland founded by Nano Nagle in Cork in 1771. First school established 1754 with enrollment of thirty-five girls in a two-room cabin during PENAL LAWS. This began her great work of education and as some historians have noted, her important work in saving the Irish culture. Over 1,200 Sisters world-wide, in Australia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, England, Guatemala, India, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, the Philippines, Slovakia, the United States, Zambia, Zimbabwe IRISH Sisters of Charity founded in Ireland, in 1815, by Mary Aikenhead. Fourth vow is 'service of the poor'. Convents in eight countries, on four continents. Sisters of Loreto in Ireland established by Mother Teresa Ball in 1823. Worldwide: education, hospitals, social justice, womens issues.
Catherine McAuley, Dublin (1778-1841) used her inheritance to found Sisters of Mercy, 1831 in Ireland and England. When she died in 1841 there were 150 Sisters of Mercy. Small groups of sisters left Ireland at the invitation of bishops in Newfoundland, New Zealand, United States, Argentina, Australia. They serve in North, Central and South America; Caribbean; Guam, Philippines. Sisters of Mercy, largest order of religious women [4,732] in United States working on immigration reform, homelessness, housing, healthcare, education, women in distress & children. Pupils in parochial schools: 104,726 & in academies and high schools: 9967 Orphanages: 67 Do not fear offending anyone. Speak as your mind directs and always act with more courage
when the mammon of unrighteousness is in question. --McAuley in Letter to Mary ALSO in AMERICA: Irish Women Lead the way. MARYKNOLL MISSIONARY SISTERS founded in 1912 by Mollie Rogers (1882-1955) - Mother Mary Joseph - granddaughter of Irish immigrants. Grew up in Roxbury, MA. Graduate of Smith College 1905. First group of Catholic Sisters in US founded for overseas mission. Established hospitals and schools all over world. 1955 Founded first racially integrated hospital in America: Queen of the World in Kansas City, Missouri. Inducted into National Womens Hall of Fame, 2013 (Seneca Falls, NY) 500 members - nurses, doctors, teachers, social workers, catechists, theologians, agronomists, artists, journalists and community development specialists from 18 nations serving in 25 countries worldwide.
Trailblazers in Habits BIRTH CONTROL: MARGARET SANGER (18791966) Challenged 1873 federal Comstock law: banned dissemination of contraceptive information. 1916 Worked as a nurse & opened first birth control clinic jailed. 1921 Established American Birth Control League, precursor to Daughter [6th of 11 children ] of IrishPlanned Parenthood Federation of America born stonemason Michael Hennessey 1936 U.S. Court of Appeals: Physicians exempt from Higgins & Anne Purcell, devoutly Catholic Irish-American. Comstock Law's ban on importation of birth control Pointed to her mother's frequent pregnancy as cause of her premature death at age 40. Observed New York's Lower East Side poor women suffering pain of frequent
childbirth, miscarriage, abortion. Coined Birth Control materials. Gave doctors the right to prescribe or distribute contraceptives. Early 1950s McCormick, Secured financial support from Katharine International Harvester heiress for research that would yield first oral contraceptive, Enovid approved by FDA, 1960. 1965 Supreme Court: Griswold v. Connecticut : birth control the most dangerous woman in America, Cork born Mary Jones (ne Harris) or Mother Jones Mary Mother Jones, 1837-1930 , from Cork, an Irish-American schoolteacher and dressmaker who became a prominent labor and community organizer, child labor activist,& cofounder of Industrial Workers of the World.
A child of the Irish famine in Cork who lost her children to yellow fever in Memphis, Tenn., in 1867, and her possessions to great fire in Chicago in 1871. Labor organizer for Knights of Labor and United Mine Workers Union. Organized Childrens March upset about lax enforcement of child labor laws in Pennsylvania, 1903. When she was condescendingly labeled Making Peace in Northern Ireland 2 IRISH Women Changing the World NOBEL PEACE PRIZE 1977 Mairead CoriganMaguire and Betty The voice of women has a special role and a special Williams won Nobel soul-force in the struggle for a nonviolent world. Peace Prize for leading peace marches where So we are honored, in the name of all women, that
Catholics and women have been honored especially for their part Protestants together in leading a nonviolent movement for a just and protested against peaceful society. violence that was splitting Northern Because of the role of women over so many Ireland. centuries in so many different cultures, they have been excluded from what have been called public affairs; for that very reason they have concentrated much more on things close to home...and they have kept far more in touch with the true realities... the realities of giving birth and love. Experts from Nobel Peace Prize Acceptance Speech Irelands TWO Marys: The Presidents 1990-1997 1997-2011 Mary Robinson transformed the office of Uachtarin na hireann and Irelands image internationally, a tradition continued by Saint Brigid's Prayer
(10th century poem attributed to Brigid) recited by: Nirn N Riain, Irish singer, writer, teacher, theologian I'd give a special welcome to the women, The three Marys of great renown. I'd like to give a lake of beer to God. I'd love the heavenly Host to be tippling there I'd sit with the men, the women and God There by the lake of beer. We'd be drinking good health forever And every drop would be a prayer. St. Brigids Prayer
Women played important part in Irish cultural and literary life in 20th century. Writers & Poets: Edna OBrien, Mary Lavan, Jennifer Johnston, Julia OFaolain, Eavan Boland, Nuala N Dhomhnaill, Anne Enright, Mary Morresy, Emma Donaghue, Maeve Binchy, Kate OBrien, Paula Meehan Claire Keegan Contemporary Artists & Painters Alice Maher, Kathy Prendergast, Eithne Jordan, Cecily Brennan, Gwen ODowd, Cathy Carman (sculptor) Edna OBriens The Country Girls & Girls in their Married Bliss were banned, although very widely read. Authorities accused her of promoting a view of female sexuality in which women were not potential victims to be protected from the wiles of male seducers but sexual beings in their own right : two
Women Writers International Festival of Literature Maeve Binchy: Love of Ireland Legal status of women in Gaelic society is unclear. Exaggerated claims have sometimes been made about degree of power and freedom enjoyed by women in early Irish society. OLD IRISH TEXT on Place of Women: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Her father has charge over her when she is a girl, her husband when she is a wife, her sons when she is a [widowed] woman with children, her kin when she is a woman of the kin (i.e. with no other guardian), the Church when she is a woman of the Church (i.e. a nun.) Early Irish society was Patriarchal 6th to 8th Centuries Legal and political life governed by men. Women had no independent legal capacity. Women could perform no legal act without the permission and authorization of a man or a group of men father, husband, or sons, the Church. Early Irish Society BREHON LAWS
By 8th century Irish society under the Brehon Laws, although male-dominated allowed women in aristocratic class some freedom, independence& rights to property. The political power which women exercised was always filtered through their male relatives: father, husband, son, brother. For the upper classes, marriage was more of a political expedient than a personal commitment. Brehon Laws were in place as the governing rules of civilization from at least 250 A.D. and were the law of the majority of the Women in Early Irish Law Society was graded according to social class. A woman's honour price was half that of an equivalent man. Slaves, male and female, were at the
bottom of the social pyramid. Law for women & non-combatants: Cin Adomnin, 697 AD It forbade the use of women in warfare and imposed fines for offences against women. Among the offences: physical violence of several kinds, rape, making a woman pregnant by stealth without contract. Other offenses: different kinds of sexual harassment and causing embarrassment to a woman by accusing her of unchastity or denying her offspring. Abbott of Iona Adomnan's Law of the Innocents seventh century law for protection of non-combatants enacted 697 A.D. at Synod of Birr for Ireland & Scotland. Guaranteed by 90 powerful
Women in Early Irish Law - Cin Adomnin, 697 A.D. There was no coinage as yet. Wealth was measured in cattle. The unit of currency was a cumal: 1 cumal = three milch [milk] cows . 1. If it be forcible rape of a girl, half of seven cumals [milk cows] for it. 2. If it be the knocking a woman down with intention to injure, one cumal [1 milk cow] and seven ounces for it. 3. If it be [putting] a hand under her clothing to dishonour her, one cumal [1 milk cow] and three ounces for it ... 4. If a woman has been made pregnant through fornication, without contract, without property, without bride-price, without betrothal, full fines for it.
--From translation by Mirn N Dhonnchadha in Thomas O'Loughlin (ed.), Adomnn at Birr, AD 697, Dublin, 2001, p. 67. Abbott of Iona AFE : an Amazonian chieftainess, the hardest woman warrior in the world, who lived in Alba [Scotland], Women in Early Irish Law - Cin Adomnin, 697 A.D. Women murderers, poisoners or burners were to be placed in a boat with one paddle and a bowl of gruel and set adrift. A man who killed a woman was to have his right hand and left foot cut off before death. The church constantly promoted celibacy for monks and nuns and preached chastity for others, but there were many recorded breaches of the rules of celibacy among the clergy.
Divorce continued to be practised, at least Abbott of Iona amongst the Gaelic aristocracy, right down to the seventeenth century, in spite of constant warnings and condemnations. Women gained more independence gradually under Brehon laws Women achieve equality. 7th Century By the end of the In the course of time, Position of a woman was made more equal to a man, Change seems to have taken place relatively rapidly as a result of the natural evolution of
society aided by the influence of the church. seventh century the normal type of marriage is a marriage in which both parties, the man and the woman, jointly contribute to the marriage goods. Each of the partners retains the ultimate ownership of what he or she contributed when married.land and stock and household equipment. Qualities most admired : The Three Steadinesses of good womanhood Most accurate picture of women is in TRIADS of IRELAND (compiled up to the ninth century):
1. A steady tongue 2. A steady virtue, 3. A steady housewifery Feminine beauty does not count in these texts although the Three Glories of a Gathering are: a. A beautiful woman b. A good horse c. A swift hound Irish colleen c. 1890s Women begin to lose equality after Norman invasion 1169. After Norman invasion of 1169, and the partial conquest and colonization which followed, for the next four centuries two communities existed side by side in Ireland. Each had its own legal system (Brehon Laws and English Law) and gradually each society came to know and be
influenced by the customs and practice prevailing in the neighboring culture. One of the sharpest and most enduring contrasts between them concerned the treatment of women. This Norman-English conquest Romanized the early Irish Church and brought about the imposition of English law on Ireland in the early seventeenth century. As a result, in its attitude to women and their place in society as in its attitude to many other matters modern Ireland enjoys NO continuity with its Gaelic past.
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