Greg Conderman [email protected] Mnemonics Acrosss the Curriculum What Are Mnemonics? Any device(s) which aid(s) memorization These devices come in a variety of forms

Mnemonics Mnemonics is the art of assisting the memory by using a system of artificial aids Rhymes Diagrams Rules Acronyms Phrases Songs/Jingles Recall of names, dates, facts and figures.

Mnemonics First invented by the Greeks for memorytraining 2500 years ago (Simonides the Younger invented the first known system in 477 BC) Mnemonics The word "mnemonics" comes from the Greek mneme ("memory") and mnemon ("mindful"), and the Greek goddess of

Memory and mother of the Muses, was Mnemosyne (pronounced "ne-mos'-ini"). Why Teach Mnemonics? Solid research base Mandate to use research-based methods Positive outcomes for students with and without disabilities in all grades and subjects

Why Teach Mnemonics? Meta analysis of popular methods in special education showed mnemonics to be the most effective technique Especially effective in remembering content for tests and vocabulary Mnemonic Training Reading Comp. Instruction

Direct Instruction Cognitive-Behavior Modification Formative Evaluation Methods Behavior Modification 1

Early Intervention Stimulant Drugs Computer-Assisted Instruction Peer Tutoring 0 0.5

1 Effect Size 1.5 2 Why Teach Mnemonics? Help students with disabilities

compensate for their learning challenges Supports the belief of fostering independence in learning Teach the mnemonic after conceptual understanding Focus on one type of mnemonic at a time (i.e., acronyms) Collaborate with general ed/grade level teachers regarding consistent instruction of mnemonics

Pair with a visual, if possible (or physical action) Tell students if order is important Have students develop their own, when ready Various Types A C R O N

Y M S visuals The story method Peg words

What is this rhyme? Do you know the number of days in each month of the year? Thirty days hath September, April , June and November; February has twenty-eight alone. All the rest have thirty-one, Except leap-year --that's the time When February days are twenty-nine.

What Is This Rhyme? Red sky at night: ____________________ sailors delight sailors warning Red sky in the morning: ____________________ traveler's take warning Rainbow in the morning: ______________________ traveler's delight Rainbow at night: ______________________

Probably the two most popular Acromyms are words composed of the first letters of items in the list However, many items in a list do not make a word Acrostics are sentences in which each ordered word in the sentence starts with a letter associated with something to be remembered

Developed at the University of KansasLawrence Validated through years of research with students with disabilities Training required for purchasing the curriculum Can still teach the big ideas from the strategy Teaches acronyms and acrostics

F I R S T Form a word (acronym) Insert a letter (acronym) Rearrange letters (acronym) Shape a sentence (acrostic)

Try different combinations (be flexible!) Films in which John Wayne Died Sands of Iwo Jima The Fighting See Bees Alamo Reap the Wild Wind Shootist

Scientific Objects That Have Never Been Seen Black Holes Antimatter Cosmic rays Earths Core Black Holes R

Antimatter Cosmic rays Earths Core Deserts we are learning about Mohave Sahara Thar Arabian

Mohave Arabian Sahara Thar Famous People Who Ran Away From Home Crockett , Grant Dylan, Kaye Diamond

Students develop a sentence such as: Caring Girls Do Kind Deeds Use a combination of those noted EX: Might need to rearrange the letters AND insert a letter to make a word Use the shape a sentence step (acrostic) to develop a mnemonic for one of these:

1. Coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet so [F, A, N, B, O, Y, S] 2. Parts of the eye: eyelid, sclera, iris, pupil [E, S, I, P] 3. Animals killed for their fur: fox, opossum, mink, raccoon, sable [F, O, M, R, S] List Order Acronyms To recall the names of the Great Lakes, remember HOMES for:

Lake Huron Ontario Michigan Erie Superior Spelling Acrostics Sentences or phrases The initial letters of the words spell out a

word which many people find rather tricky to spell. Becuz? Arithmuytik? Spelling Acrostics BECAUSE Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants

ARITHMETIC A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream List Order Acrostic Order of taxonomy in biology: Kingdom Phylum Kids

Prefer Cheese Class Over Fried Green Spinach Order Family Genus Species How would you approach this problem?

(24 + 36) (45 x 3) 1 x 98 When you have to deal with a combination of addition, subtraction, parenthesis (brackets) etc., it is important to carry out the process in the correct order to get the right answer. One way to remember the order is: parenthesis, first then followed by multiplications, divisions, additions and subtractions is to recall the following sentence: Pardon My Dear Aunt Sally OR if exponents are included: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

To remember the most common metric prefixes: Kilo,hecto, deka, basic unit, deci, centi, and milli. They are in order from large to small. My cousins dog usually barks despite his kindness (reverse order) or Kennys healthy diet banishes unusual dark chocolate muffins.

When doing long division, do we divide first or subtract before we bring down and multiply? To remember that the sequence is Divide, Multiply, Subtract and Bring Down, remember the order of the following family members: Dad (D = divide) Mom (M = multiply) Sister (S = subtract) Brother (B = bring down)

To remember the order of the colors in the natural light spectrum: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet. ROY G. BIV Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain Airplane Cell Phone McDonalds

Typewriter Chicken Leg Pencil Saturn (planet) Red Corvette Stop Sign Window Use In The Content Area: Snapshot Method

Inventions that enabled the west to be settled Six-shooter Windmill Sod house Locomotive Steel plow Barbed wire Develop a snap shot visual for one of

these: 1. Common human fears: Heights, Insects, Death, Elevators, Snakes 2. Uses of soybeans: Rubber, Soap, Food, Explosives 3. Examples of arthropods: Spiders, Crabs, Lobsters, Shrimp Keyword Strategy Wide range of subject areas (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1992)

Used to teach factual information Help students with high-incidence disabilities remember main ideas in the content areas (Graves & Levin, 1989). Used to teach vocabulary for standardized tests Keyword Strategy: Step 1 Reconstruct term to be learned

into an acoustically similar already familiar easily pictured concrete term A KEYWORD Keyword Strategy: Step 2 Relate the keyword ___________

to the to-be-learned ____________________ information in an interactive picture, image, or sentence. Keyword Strategy: Step 3 Model and teach students to retrieve the appropriate

response by thinking of: The keyword The picture The action in the picture Vocabulary Word: Apex Definition: The highest point Key word: Ape (Acoustically similar, familiar and can be drawn)

Image: Ape on highest point Develop a key word and illustration for one of the following: Word Definition Keyword

Picture Ranid frog rain Frog sitting in the rain

Dorado fish Carline witch Dogbane

Tropical plant This method is for remembering ordered or sequential information Such as: Washington was the 1st president,or New Jersey was the 3rd state to be admitted

This system involves using peg words, which are rhyming words associated with a number such as: One-bun; two-shoe, three-tree; four-door; five-hive; six-sticks; seven-heaven; eightgate; nine-vine; and ten-hen Visually associate the item to be remembered with its peg word EX: Washington is the first president First goes with one

The peg word for one is bun Draw Washington eating a hot dog bun New Jersey was the 3rd state to be admitted The peg word for three is tree Draw the state of New Jersey interacting with a tree Develop a peg word (word and associated

illustration) for one of these items 1. California is the largest state in land size (1-bun) 2. Illinois is the 25th largest state in land size (25-hive) 3. North Carolina is 10th in order of population (10-hen) Use the model, guided practice, independent practice approach

Do not overwhelm students with too many mnemonics or strategies Use the correct approach: For unfamiliar information, use the key word method For information that is numbered or ordered, use the peg word method

When you can make a word or sentence, use the acronym or word or sentence method When the information is concrete and students seem to learn through visuals, use a visual approach

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