Mobile Communication and Internet Technologies

Mobile Communication and Internet Technologies

MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES Developments in NFV technology and SDN of: Courtesy Cesar Marcondes (UFSCar) http://web.uettaxila.edu.pk/CMS/AUT2014/teMCITms/ MODULE OVERVIEW Motivation; Problem Statement, Trends in IT & Telecom challenges Network Functions Virtualization Vision; Approach; Benefits & Promises The ETSI NFV ISG; WG; Architecture NFV Requirements and Challenges

Use Cases, Proof-of-Concepts Enabling Technologies MOTIVATION PROBLEM STATEMENT Complex carrier networks with a large variety of proprietary nodes and hardware appliances. Launching new services is difficult and takes too long Space and power to accommodate requires just another variety of box, which needs to be integrated. Operation is expensive Rapidly reach end of life due to existing procure-design,integrate-deploy cycle. Traditional Network model Network functionalities are based on specific HW&SW

TELCO VS SERVICE PROVIDERS Service Providers Idea !! Telco Operators SDOs AVAILABLE Deploy Demand n tor era Op 2 tor e ra Op 1

tor era Op Equipment Vendors Telco Cycle Idea !! Service Providers Cycle AVAILABLE Develop Deploy Publish 2-6 Months

Sell Drive Critical mass of supporters Standardis e Implement 2-6 years 2-6 Years 2-6 months Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV ENTER THE SOFTWAREDEFINED ERA Traditional

Traditional telcos telcos Internet Internet players players Very intensive in hardware Software not at the core x Very intensive in software Hardware is a

necessary base - SOFTWARE HARDWARE+ + - AT&T, Telefonica, Telebras Google, Facebook Adapt to survive: Telco evolution focus shifting from hardware to software Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV Trends High performance industry standard servers shipped in

very high volume Convergence of computing, storage and networks New virtualization technologies that abstract underlying hardware yielding elasticity, scalability and automation Software-defined networking Cloud services Mobility, explosion of devices and traffic Challenges Huge capital investment to deal with current trends Network operators face an increasing disparity between costs and revenues Complexity: large and increasing variety of proprietary

hardware appliances in operators network Reduced hardware lifecycles Lack of flexibility and agility: cannot move network resources where & when needed Launching new services is difficult and takes too long. Often requires yet another Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV THE NFV CONCEPT A means to make the network more flexible and simple by minimising dependence on HW constraints v Traditional Traditional Network

Network Model: Model: APPLIANCE APPLIANCE APPROACH APPROACH DPI GGSN/ CG-NAT BRAS SGSN Firewall PE Router DPI BRAS Firewall CG-NAT v

Virtualised Virtualised Network Network Model: Model: VIRTUAL VIRTUAL APPLIANCE APPLIANCE APPROACH APPROACH GGSN/SGSN Session Border Controller VIRTUAL APPLIANCES ORCHESTRATION, AUTOMATION & REMOTE INSTALL PE Router Network Functions are based on specific HW&SW

One physical node per role STANDARD HIGH VOLUME SERVERS Network Functions are SW-based over well-known HW Multiple roles over same HW Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV Target Independent Software Vendors Classical Network Appliance Approach Message Router DPI CDN

Firewall WAN Session Border Acceleration Controller Carrier Grade NAT Tester/QoE monitor Orchestrated, automatic & remote install. Standard High Volume Servers Standard High Volume Storage SGSN/GGSN

PE Router BRAS Radio Access Network Nodes Fragmented non-commodity hardware. Physical install per appliance per site. Hardware development large barrier to entry for new vendors, constraining innovation & competition. Source: NFV Standard High Volume Ethernet Switches Network Virtualisation Approach

NETWORK FUNCTIONS VIRTUALIZATION Network Functions Virtualization is about implementing network functions in software - that today run on proprietary hardware leveraging (high volume) standard servers and IT virtualization Supports multi-versioning and multi-tenancy of network functions, which allows use of a single physical platform for different applications, users and tenants Enables new ways to implement resilience, service assurance, test and diagnostics and security surveillance Provides opportunities for pure software players Facilitates innovation towards new network functions and services that are only practical in a pure software network environment Applicable to any data plane packet processing and control plane functions, in fixed or mobile networks NFV will only scale if management and configuration of functions can be automated NFV aims to ultimately transform the way network operators architect and operate their networks, Source: but change canD.be incremental

Adapted from Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV BENEFITS & PROMISES OF NFVReduced equipment costs (CAPEX) through consolidating equipment and economies of scale of IT industry. Increased speed of time to market by minimising the typical network operator cycle of innovation. Availability of network appliance multi-version and multitenancy, allows a single platform for different applications, users and tenants. Enables a variety of eco-systems and encourages openness. Encouraging innovation to bring new services and generate new revenue streams. Source: NFV BENEFITS & PROMISES OF

NFV Flexibility to easily, rapidly, dynamically provision and instantiate new services in various locations Improved operational efficiency by taking advantage of the higher uniformity of the physical network platform and its homogeneity to other support platforms. Software-oriented innovation to rapidly prototype and test new services and generate new revenue streams More service differentiation & customization Reduced (OPEX) operational costs: reduced power, reduced space, improved network

monitoring IT-oriented skillset and talent Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV SO, WHY WE NEED/WANT NFV(/SDN)? 1. Virtualization: Use network resource without worrying about where it is physically located, how much it is, how it is organized, etc. 2. Orchestration: Manage thousands of devices 3. Programmable: Should be able to change behavior on the fly. 4. Dynamic Scaling: Should be able to change size, quantity 5. Automation 6. Visibility: Monitor resources, connectivity 7. Performance: Optimize network device utilization 8. Multi-tenancy 9. Service Integration 10. Openness: Full choice of modular plug-ins Note: These are exactly the same reasons why we need/want SDN . Source: Adapted from Raj Jain NFV AND SDN NFV and SDN are highly complementary

Both topics are mutually beneficial but not dependent on each other Creates competitive supply of innovative applications by third parties Open Innovation Software Defined Networking Network Functions Virtualisation Source: NFV

Creates network abstractions to allow applicationaware behaviour, and increased flexibility Leads to agility, Reduces CAPEX, OPEX, NFV VS SDN NFV: re-definition of network equipment architecture NFV was born to meet Service Provider (SP) needs: Lower CAPEX by reducing/eliminating proprietary hardware Consolidate multiple network functions onto industry standard platforms SDN: re-definition of network architecture SDN comes from the IT world: Separate the data and control layers, while centralizing the control

Deliver the ability to program network behavior using welldefined interfaces SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORKING SDN Open interfaces (OpenFlow) for instructing the boxes what to do Network equipment as Black boxes FEATURE FEATURE OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURE SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE FEATURE

FEATURE FEATURE OPERATING SYSTEM OPERATING SYSTEM SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE FEATURE FEATURE OPERATING SYSTEM SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE

SDN Boxes with autonomous behaviour FEATURE FEATURE OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURE FEATURE SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE OPERATING SYSTEM SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE

FEATURE FEATURE OPERATING SYSTEM FEATURE FEATURE Decisions are taken out of the box SDN SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE OPERATING SYSTEM SPECIALIZED PACKET FORWARDING HARDWARE

Adapting OSS to manage black boxes Simpler OSS to manage the SDN controller Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV SCOPE OF NFV AND OPENFLOW/SDN Source: NEC NETWORKING WITH SDN & NFV Source: NEC (Network Virtualization)2 = SDN + NFV 0 SDN: Software Defined Networking NFV: Network Functions

Virtualisation Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV SOME USE CASE EXAMPLES NOT IN ANY PARTICULAR ORDER Switching elements: BNG, CG-NAT, routers. Mobile network nodes: HLR/HSS, MME, SGSN, GGSN/PDN-GW. Home networks: Functions contained in home routers and set top boxes to create virtualised home environments. Tunnelling gateway elements: IPSec/SSL VPN gateways. Traffic analysis: DPI, QoE measurement. Service Assurance: SLA monitoring, Test and Diagnostics. NGN signalling: SBCs, IMS. Converged and network-wide functions: AAA servers, policy control and charging platforms. Application-level optimisation: CDNs, Cache Servers, Load Balancers, Application Accelerators. Security functions: Firewalls, virus scanners, intrusion detection systems, spam protection. Source: NFV THE ETSI NFV ISG

Global operators-led Industry Specification Group (ISG) under the auspices of ETSI ~150 member organisations Open membership ETSI members sign the Member Agreement Non-ETSI members sign the Participant Agreement Opening up to academia Currently, four WGs and two EGs Infrastructure Software Architecture

Management & Orchestration Reliability & Availability Performance & Portability Security Operates by consensus Formal voting only when required Deliverables: White papers addressing challenges and operator requirements, as input to SDOs Not a standardisation body by itself Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV NFV LAYERS End Point E2E Network Service Network Service

Logical Logical Abstractions Abstractions VNF VNF Logical Links End Point VNF VNF VNF VNF Instances SW SW Instances

Instances VNF VNF VNF VNF VNF : Virtualized Network Function NFV Infrastructure Virtual Virtual Resources Resources Virtualization Virtualization SW SW HW

HW Resources Resources Virtual Compute Virtual Storage Virtual Network Virtualization Layer Compute Storage Network Source: Adapted from D. Lopez Telefonica I+D, NFV RETHINKING RELAYERING

NFV Requirements and Challenges FIRST: A FEW CHALLENGES Achieving high performance virtualised network appliances portable between different HW vendors, and with different hypervisors. Co-existence with bespoke HW based network platforms enabling efficient migration paths to fully virtualised network platforms. Management and orchestration of virtual network appliances ensuring security from attack and misconfiguration. NFV will only scale if all of the functions can be automated. Appropriate level of resilience to HW and SW failures. Integrating multiple virtual appliances from different vendors. Network operators need to be able to mix & match HW, hypervisors and virtual appliances from different vendors,

without incurring significant integration costs. NFV PERFORMANCE CHALLENGES Source: Ivan Pepelnjak NFV Use Cases USE CASES MATRIX Use Case Matrix 4 big horizontal themes, and 9 use cases ETSI NFV POC NFV INFRASTRUCTURE AS A SERVICE (NFVIAAS) NFV Infrastructure : provide the capability or functionality of providing an environment in which

Virtualized network functions (VNF) can execute NFVIaaS provides compute capabilities comparable to an IaaS cloud computing service as a run time execution environment as well as support the dynamic network connectivity services that may be considered as comparable to NaaS MOBILE CORE NETWORK AND IMS Mobile networks are populated with a large variety of proprietary hardware appliances Flexible allocation of Network Functions on such hardware resource pool could highly improve network usage efficiency Accommodate increased demand for particular services (e.g. voice) without fully relying on the call restriction control mechanisms in

a large-scale natural disaster scenario such as the Great East Japan Earthquake V-EPC Examples of Network Functions include MME, S/P-GW, etc This use case aims at applying virtualization to the EPC, the IMS, and these other Network Functions mentioned above VIRTUALIZATION OF MOBILE BASE Mobile STATION network traffic is significantly increasing by the demand generated by application of mobile devices, while the ARPU (Avg. Revenue Per User) is difficult to increase

LTE is also considered as radio access part of EPS (Evolved Packet System) which is required to fulfil the requirements of high spectral efficiency, high peak data rates, short round trip time and frequency flexibility in radio access network (RAN) Virtualization of mobile base station leverages IT virtualization technology to realize at least a part of RAN nodes onto standard IT servers, storages and switches VIRTUALIZATION OF MOBILE BASE STATION Functional blocks in C-RAN LTE RAN architecture evolution by centralized BBU pool (Telecom Baseband Unit) NFV Proof-ofConcepts ONGOING PROOF OF CONCEPTS

CloudNFV Open NFV Framework Project Telefonica - Sprint - 6WIND - Dell - EnterpriseWeb Mellanox - Metaswitch - Overture Networks - Qosmos Huawei - Shenick Service Chaining for NW Function Selection in Carrier Networks NTT - Cisco - HP - Juniper Networks Virtual Function State Migration and Interoperability AT&T - BT - Broadcom Corporation - Tieto Corporation Multi-vendor Distributed NFV CenturyLink - Certes - Cyan - Fortinet - RAD C-RAN virtualization with dedicated hardware accelerator China Mobile - Alcatel-Lucent - Wind River Systems Intel Automated Network Orchestration Deutsche Telekom - Ericsson - x-ion GmbH - Deutsche

Telekom Innovation Laboratories VNF Router Performance with DDoS Functionality AT&T - Telefonica - Brocade - Intel - Spirent NFV Ecosystem Telecom Italia - DigitalWave - SunTec - Svarog Technology Group - Telchemy - EANTC Multi-Vendor on-boarding of vIMS on a E2E vEPC Orchestration in a multi-vendor opencloud management framework NFVI environment Telefonica - Sprint - Intel - Cyan - Red Hat - Dell Connectem Deutsche Telekom - Huawei Technologies - AlcatelLucent Demonstration of multi-location, scalable, stateful Virtual Network Function

Virtualised Mobile Network with Integrated DPI Telefonica - Intel - Tieto - Qosmos - Wind River Systems Hewlett Packard NTT - Fujitsu - Alcatel-Lucent CLOUDNFV Dell Lab infrastructure for CloudNFV Source: ETSI Ongoing PoC http://nfvwiki.etsi.org/index.php?title=On-going_PoCs SERVICE CHAINING FOR NW FUNCTION SELECTION IN CARRIER NETWORKS vDPI: CSR 1000v (Cisco Systems) vCPE: VSR1000 (Hewlett-Packard) vFW: FireFly (Juniper Networks) VIM (NW Controller): Service Chaining Function (prototype) + Ryu (NTT) Source: ETSI Ongoing PoC

MULTI VENDOR ON-BOARDING OF VIMS ON CLOUD MANAGEMENT FRAME Scenario 1 One-click service deployment. IMS service is provided by several 3GPP Network Functions, such as CSC, HSS, MMTel, etc. These functions, all from Huawei, are virtualized. With the pre-defined templates and scripts, all functions can be deployed automatically, onto the cloud platform provided by DT and ALU. Scenario 2 Auto-scaling of VNF Traffic load generator by a simulator increases and pushes up the workload of the VNF. When the workload exceeds the pre-defined threshold, additional resources (VM) are automatically allocated. In situations of reducing VNF capacity due to decreasing traffic load, similar in reverse

direction Scenario 3 Automated healing of VNF When a VM containing a component of a VNF (VNFC) new VM PoC will be automatically Source:fails, ETSIaOngoing CloudBand is the AlcatelLucent Cloud Platform ENABELING TECHNOLOGIES REMARKABLE ENABELING TECHNOLOGIES Minimalistic OS ClickOS Improving Linux i/O Netmap, VALE, Linux NAPI

Programmable virtual switches / bridges Open vSwitch Exploiting x86 for packet processing Intel DPDK Some example start-ups LineRate Systems, 6WIND, Midonet, Vyatta (bought by BCD) Image source: NEC CLICKOS ARCHTECTURE Martins, J. et al. Enabling Fast, Dynamic Network Processing with ClickOS. HotSDN 2013. INTEL DPDK Fonte: Intel Data Plane Development Kit (Intel DPDK) Overview Packet Processing on Intel Architecture NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALISATION - NFV INTEL DPDK

Buffer and Memory Manager Manage the allocation of objects non-NUMA using huge pages through rings, reducing TLB access, also, perform a pre-allocation of fixed buffer space for each core Queue Manager Implements lockless queues, allow packets to be processed by different software components with no contention Flow Classification Implements hash functions from information tuples, allow packets to be positioned rapidly in their flow paths. Improves throughput Pool Mode Driver Temporary hold times thus avoiding raise NIC interruptions NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALISATION - NFV

VYATTA VROUTER (5400 & 5600) vRouter 5600 Licensing bare metal, VM and Amazon Features: Network Connectivity Firewall IPv6 CLI, GUI and Brocade Vyatta Remote Access API Authentication (TACACS+, RADIUS) Monitoring and log IPSec VPN QoS High-Availability vPlane NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALISATION - NFV OPENSTACK OpenStack is a global collaboration of developers and cloud computing

technologists producing the ubiquitous open source cloud computing platform for public and private clouds. The project aims to deliver solutions for all types of clouds by being simple to implement, massively scalable, and feature rich. The technology consists of a series of interrelated projects delivering various components for a cloud infrastructure solution. NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALISATION - NFV Source: Openstack.org Conclusions Current Enterprise networks are complicated Network Function Virtualization is the future direction with its pros and cons Evolving Technology needs more time to become mainstream Network functionalities are based on specific HW&SW One physical node per role OPEX and CAPEX benefits are the driving force behind NFV and SDN

Q&A Assignment #7 Write Notes on the terms highlighted in Red in slide 38 Write a summary of the paper Martins, J. et al. Enabling Fast, Dynamic Network Processing with ClickOS. HotSDN 2013. on Slide 41

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