Mobile Communication and Internet Technologies

Mobile Communication and Internet Technologies

MOBILE COMMUNICATION AND INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES teMCITms/ Smart Grid Communication Network and Wireless Technologies Courtesy of: Quang-Dung Ho and Tho Le-Ngoc ECE Dept., McGill University, Montreal, Canada CONTENTS Introduction to Smart Grid Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) Communications Traffic and Required Quality of Services (QoSs) Wireless Communications Technologies for SGCN Neighbor Area Network (NAN) and Open Research Issues

Smart Grid Standards Summary References Northeast Blackout August 14, 2003 Affected 55 million people $6 billion lost Per year $135 billions ~$6 billion lost lost due to 8/14/03 for power interruption blackout Cost of Power Disturbances: $25

- $188 billion per year 10/19/2005 4 SMART GRID a new digital meter on your breaker panel? a wireless network that reads those meters remotely or the data management system that processes the information? some solar panels on the roof? a load-controller on the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system? Smart Grid is the inclusion of all of

these things SMART GRID an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and information, capable of monitoring and responding to changes in everything from power plants to customer preferences to individual appliances [1] the electricity delivery system (from point of generation to point of consumption) integrated with communications and information technology for enhanced grid operations, customer services, and environmental benefits SMART GRID CAN Identify and resolve faults on electricity grid Automatically self-heal the grid Monitor power quality and manage voltage Identify devices or subsystems that require maintenance

Help consumers optimize their individual electricity consumption (minimize their bills) Enable the use of smart appliances that can be programmed to run on off-peak power SG COMM. NETWORK (SGCN) The key to achieving these potential benefits of SG is to successful build up Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) that can support all identified SG functionalities Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Demand Response (DR), Electric Vehicles (EVs), Wide-Area Situational Awareness (WASA), distributed energy resources and storage, distribution grid management, etc. SG COMM. NETWORK (SGCN) Microgrid

Smart Meter Substation Substation Customer Electric Vehicle Non-renewable Enegy Microgrid Wind Enegy Solar Enegy Power Generation

Power Transmission Grid Power Distribution Grid Power Consumption (a) Power System Layer Control Center Wireless Backhaul Concentrator Wired Backhaul Network

Base Station Smart Meter Smart Home Device Data Aggregation Point (DAP) Wide Area Network (WAN) Neighbor Area Network (NAN) (b) Communications Layer

The overall layered architecture of SG Home Area Network (HAN) ADVANCED SENSING AND MEASUREMENT Enhance power system measurements and enable the transformation of data into information. Evaluate the health of equipment, the integrity of the grid, and support advanced protective relaying. Enable consumer choice and demand response, and help relieve congestion ADVANCED SENSING AND MEASUREMENT Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Provide interface between the utility and its customers: bi-direction control Advanced functionality

Real-time electricity pricing Accurate load characterization Outage detection/restoration California asked all the utilities to deploy the new smart meter ADVANCED SENSING AND MEASUREMENT Health Monitor: Phasor measurement unit (PMU) Measure the electrical waves and determine the health of the system. Increase the reliability by detecting faults early, allowing for isolation of operative system, and the prevention of power outages.

ADVANCED SENSING AND MEASUREMENT Distributed weather sensing Widely distributed solar irradiance, wind speed, temperature measurement systems to improve the predictability of renewable energy. The grid control systems can dynamically adjust the source of power supply. TRAFFIC AND REQUIRED QOS Traffic Types Description

Bandwidth Latency Meter Reads Meters report energy consumption (Ex: the 15-min interval reads are usually transferred every 4 hours) Up to 10kbps 2 to 10sec Demand Response (DR) Utilities to communicate with customer devices to allow customers to reduce or shift their power use during peak demand periods

Low 500ms ~ min Connects and Disconnects Connects/disconnect customers to/from the grid Low A few 100ms, a few minutes Synchrophasor The major primary measurement technologies deployed for Wide-Area Situational Awareness (WASA)

A few 100kbps 20ms to 200ms Substation SCADA 4-sec interval polling by the master to all the intelligent electronic devices inside the substation 10 to 30kbps 2 ~ 4sec Inter-substation Communications Emerging applications such as DER might warrant GOOSE communications outside substation

-- 12ms ~ 20ms Surveillance Video site surveillance A few Mbps A few sec Fault Location, Isolation and Restoration (FLIR) To control protection/restoration circuits

10 to 30kbps A few 100ms Optimization volt/var optimization and power quality optimization on distribution networks 2 ~ 5Mbps 25 ~ 100ms Workforce Access Provides expert video, voice access to field workers 250kbps

150ms Asset Management For predictively and pro-actively gathering and analyzing non-operational data for potential asset failures -- -- Protection To respond to faults, isolate them and ensure loads are not affected -- 100ms ~ 10sec

Operation Optimization Monitors and controls the operations of the whole MG in order to optimize the power exchanged between the MG and the main grid -- 100ms ~ min AMI Networks Substation Networks Distribution Network Microgid

WIRELESS COMM. TECHNOLOGIES Technology Advantage Disadvantage Application Zigbee (IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee Alliance) Low-cost, low power, wireless mesh standard for wireless home area networks (WHANs) or wireless personal area networks (WPANs) Very low cost - inexpensive consumer devices;

Low power consumption - years of battery life; Self- organizing, secure, and reliable mesh network; Network can support a large number of users; Smart energy profile for HANs is available Very short range; Does not penetrate structures well; Low data rates; Developers must join ZigBee Alliance HANs for energy management and monitoring; Unlikely to be used in NANs Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b/g/n) Indoor wireless local area

networks (WLANs), wireless mesh networks Low-cost chip sets - inexpensive consumer devices; Widespread use and expertise; Lowcost application development; Stable and mature standards Does not penetrate cement buildings or basements; Small coverage and short distances limit wide spread use; Security issues with multiple networks operating in same locations Could be used for HANs, MGANs, and NANs 3G Cellular (UMTS, CDMA2000, EV-DO, EDGE)

Wide-area wireless networks for voice, video, and data services in a mobile environment Expensive infrastructure already widely deployed, stable and mature; Well standardized; Equipment prices keep dropping; Readily available expertise in deployments; Cellular chipset very inexpensive; Large selection of vendors and service providers Utility must rent the infrastructure from a cellular carrier for a monthly access fee; Utility does not own infrastructure; Technology is in the transition phase to LTE deployment; Public cellular networks not sufficiently stable/secure for mission critical/utility applications; Not wellsuited for large data/high bandwidth

applications AMI Backhaul, Field Area Network (FAN) LTE Enhancements to 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile networking, providing for enhanced multimedia services Low latency, high capacity; Fully integrated with 3GGP, compatible with earlier 3GPP releases; Full mobility for enhanced multimedia services; Carrier preferred protocol; Low power consumption

Utility must rent the infrastructure from a cellular carrier for a monthly access fee; Utility does not own infrastructure; Not readily available in many markets/still in testing phases in others; Equipment cost high; Vendor differentiation still unclear; Lack of expertise in designing LTE networks; Utilities access to spectrum AMI Backhaul, SCADA Backhaul, Demand Response, FAN, Video Surveillance WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) Wireless metropolitan area network (MAN) providing highspeed fixed/mobile Internet

access Efficient backhaul of data aggregating 100s access points; QoS supports service assurance; Battery-backup improves reliability and security; Simple, scalable network rollout and customer-premises equipment (CPE) attachment; Faster speeds than 3G cellular; Large variety of CPE and gateway/ base station designs Limited access to spectrum licenses in the US; Trade off between higher bit rates over longer distances; Asymmetrical up and down link speeds; User shared bandwidth; Competing against future 4G cellular AMI Backhaul,

SCADA Backhaul, Demand Response, FAN, Video Surveillance NEIGHBOR AREA NETWORK (NAN) Gathers a huge volume of various types of data and distributes important control signals from and to millions of devices installed at customer premises The most critical segment that connects utilities and customers in order to enable primarily important SG applications CHARACTERISTICS OF NAN To support a huge number of devices that distribute over large geographical areas.

Must be scalable to network size and selfconfigurable. Heterogeneous and location-aware. Link condition and thus network connectivity are time-varying due to multipath fading, surrounding environment, harsh weather, electricity power outage, etc. CHARACTERISTICS OF NAN Deployed outdoor, thus must be robust to node and link failures Carries different types of traffic that require a wide range of QoSs Needs QoS awareness and provisioning Mainly supports Multi-Point-to-Point (MP2P) and Point-toMultiple-Point (P2MP) traffic Very vulnerable to privacy and security WIRELESS ROUTING OVERVIEW

Routing protocols for wireless networks Flooding-based Simple Message implosion, resource-blind, mainly for P2P Location-based Simple, exploits location information Loops, distance not represents link quality Self-organizing Adapts well to link quality, supports MP2P and P2MP, supports QoS Complicated, needs more signaling Cluster-based

Resource-efficient, supports security Complicated, less dynamic to link conditions CANDIDATE ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR NAN Greedy Geographic routing (GEO) [40] Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) [41~46] IEEE 802.11s Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) [47~49] OPEN ISSUES IN NAN Downlink Communications QoS Differentiation and Provisioning Network Self-healing Multicasting Cluster-based Routing Optimal Network Design

INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS AND SECURITY High-speed, fully integrated, two-way communication technologies that make the smart grid a dynamic, interactive megainfrastructure for real-time information and power exchange. Cyber Security: the new communication mechanism should consider security, reliability, QoS. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK The challenges of wireless sensor network in smart grid Harsh environmental conditions. Reliability and latency requirements Packet errors and variable link capacity Resource constraints. The interference will severely affect the quality of wireless sensor network.

ADVANCED COMPONENTS AND SUBSYSTEMS These power system devices apply the latest research in materials, superconductivity, energy storage, power electronics, and microelectronics Produce higher power densities, greater reliability and power quality, enhanced electrical ADVANCED COMPONENTS AND SUBSYSTEMS Advanced Energy Storage New Battery Technologies Sodium Sulfur (NaS) Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Grid-to-Vehicle(G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid(V2G) Peak load leveling

GRID-TO-VEHICLE (G2V) V2G: WIND WITH STORAGE SMART GRID STANDARDS Inter-operability: the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged The overall SG system is lacking widely accepted standards SMART GRID STANDARDS Standards Development Organizations (SDOs): National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),

International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), etc. Alliances: ZigBee Alliance, Wi-Fi Alliance, HomePlug Powerline Alliance, ZWave Alliance, etc. NIST ACTIVITIES primary responsibility to coordinate development of a framework that includes protocols and model standards for information management to achieve inter-operability of smart grid devices and systems ... (Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Title XIII, Section 1305) Specific activities: (i) identifying existing applicable standards (ii) addressing and solving gaps where a standard extension or new standard is needed and (iii) identifying overlaps where multiple standards address some common information

NIST ACTIVITIES NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 1.0 [52] 25 relevant standards (and additional 50 standards for further review) NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0 [53] 34 reviewed standards (and additional 62 standards for further review) NIST ACTIVITIES Priority Action Plans (PAPs), each addresses one of the following situations: a gap exists, where a standard extension or new standard is needed; an overlap exists, where two complementary standards address some information that is in common but different for the same scope of application NIST ACTIVITIES

PAPs identified by NIST REPRESENTATIVE SG STANDARDS Substation WiMAX Wi-Fi 3G/4G Cellular IEC 61850 DNP3 IEEE P2030 SONET

Wide Area Network IEC 61400-25 Control center Wind farm IEEE 1547 IEC 61850-7-420 Distributed Energy Resources IEC 61850 DNP3 CIM Wi-Fi

3G/4G Cellular Neighbor Area Network BACnet OpenADR DRBizNet C12.18 C12.19 C12.22 Smart M-Bus meter Zigbee Wi-Fi Residential user SAE J2293 SAE J2836 SAE J2847

PHEV Home Area Network Commercial user SUMMARY This presentation gave an overview of the Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) by presenting its layered architecture, typical types of traffic that it may carry and associated quality of service requirements, as well as candidate wireless communications technologies that can be employed for its implementation Networking issues that the Neighbor Area Network (NAN)

segment of SGCN needs to tackle are highlighted by exploring characteristics and requirements of this network segment identifying important gaps that existing wireless routing protocols need to cover for their applicability into NAN It also reviews a number of standards for smart grid interoperability REFERENCES REFERENCES REFERENCES REFERENCES

REFERENCES REFERENCES Q&A ASSIGNMENT #5 Write Notes on the terms highlighted in Red View the following Video Tutorials on Smart Grids:

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