Models of Teaching

Models of Teaching

MODELS OF TEACHING C B y: Ch eyen ne Howell c hey en ne.s m i th @s m a i l.as tate.ed u What are models of teaching? Models of teaching are the various models that are used to teach content to students. The model a teacher chooses to use depends on the content, student grouping, and who you want the lesson centered around (teacher or student). There a number of models that teachers can choose from.

Two major categories o Inductive Models Centered around the students o Deductive Models Centered around the teacher Inductive vs. Deductive Teaching Inductive Deductive Student-Centered

Teacher-Centered Starts with examples Starts with generalizations Moves towards generalizations Moves towards examples High interaction Low interaction

Method of discovery Method of verification Process takes much longer Process is fast Types of Models Inductive Deductive

Jigsaw Direct Instruction Group Investigation Advance Organizer QAR Reciprocal Teaching Concept Attainment INDUCTIVE MODELS

C Jigsaw The Jigsaw model requires a lot of teacher work up front and student collaboration throughout. This model works best if you have content that can be divided into 3-4 parts. Steps: 1. Teacher chooses a large body of information, breaking into categories. 2. Teacher creates home groups where each students goes away and learns about a categories. 3. Each home group member goes to their expert group to read/discuss the information. 4. Home groups reunite and take turns sharing what they learned. Group Investigation

The Group Investigation model is very similar to Jigsaw. This model deals with a puzzling situation that students are investigating. Increases problem solving and communication skills. Steps: 1. Provide students with puzzling situation. 2. Students explore reactions to the situation. 3. Students formulate study tasks. 4. Independent and group study time 5. Students analyze progress and process 6. Repeat the cycle with new puzzling situation that grew out of the first investigation. QAR The QAR model is used to help students find and understand the relationships between questions and their answers.

This model helps students improve their higher-level thinking processes, increase their reading comprehension, and increase their ability to answer questions. Stages of QAR o In the Book: Right There Answer is in one place in the text Think and Search Answer is in the text but in different places o In My Head: Author and Me Answer is found by using the text and their background knowledge On My Own Answer is found by using background knowledge/experiences Reciprocal Teaching In the Reciprocal Teaching model, teachers and students exchange roles. Students practice strategies that effective readers automatically do.

This model helps improve reading comprehension and comprehension-monitoring skills. Strategies: Generating Questions Predicting Clarifying Summarizing Concept Attainment The Concept Attainment model involves students comparing and contrasting exemplars and nonexemplars to understand a concept. Critical thinking is used through out the whole model. Stages: 1. Preparation

2. Introduction of Exemplars and Nonexemplars 3. Generating Hypotheses 4. Testing and Affirming Hypotheses 5. Analyzing the Cognitive Road Map Exemplars Ice Melting Cutting Paper Dicing Potatoes Crushing a Can Nonexempl

ars Wood Burning Iron Rusting Baking a Cake Digesting Food DEDUCTIVE MODELS C Direct Instruction

Direct Instruction is an explicit teaching model where the teacher presents content to the students. This model helps students master learning of the content. Steps: 1. Focus Activity 2. State Objectives and Provide Rationale 3. Present the Content 4. Check for Understanding 5. Guided Practice 6. Independent Practice 7. Closure Advance Organizers Advance Organizers are a model that help students organize information by seeing

how it connects. This model helps provide a mental framework, recall information easily, and engage in learning. Helps bridge the gap between what learners already know and what they will learn. Procedures: 1. Read a text-based advance organizer orally to students. 2. Add visuals. 3. Use concept maps and graphic organizers. 4. Teach the advance organizer and remind students to use them. References DellOlio, J. M., & Donk, T. (2007). Models of teaching: Connecting student learning With standards. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

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