Modernising of the Criminal Law - challenges for the future.
Social Responses to Crime: - crime prevention through integrated planning Adjunct Professor Peter Norden AO Australian & New Zealand Society of Criminology Conference Auckland, New Zealand 28th November 2012 Melbournes current population growth of 2 per cent a year presents major planning
challenges for new housing development. Norden Directions contracted by the Victorian Dept of Health to identify methods of integrated planning that could result in effective crime prevention measures. Determinants of good mental health: 1. strengthening of social cohesion
2. freedom from violence and discrimination, valuing of diversity. 3. access to economic resources (education, employment, income, affordable housing, social security) Several areas of State government policy could impact on good mental health: - employment and workplace relations
- education and training - housing security and affordability - local govt & healthy environments - justice and discrimination - transport: affordable and safe - the arts and local community engagement - sport and recreation: access and participation Specific focus on consultancy undertaken:
- how to expand the housing stock for metropolitan Melbourne in a way that creates affordable housing and more liveable communities. - in a way which helps, rather than hinders, the promotion of good mental health. Need for city to grow with an additional 600,000 extra dwellings within the next
15 20 years. Historically, inner suburbs: lower income, middle and outer suburbs: higher income. Danger of evolving into two cities: - wealthy inner suburbs with good services, local jobs, access to good schools, recreation - outer suburban areas with fewer choices, limited public transport, local jobs, health etc
Projected impact of such a social divide on community cohesion and social conflict and crime.. Crime prevention methods, based on developing liveable and affordable communities can offer a viable alternative. Vinson (2007) Dropping Off the Edge
- establishes the high correlations within neighbourhoods between such factors as low pre-school attendance, early school leaving, unemployment, and the interventions of child protection, mental health and the criminal justice system. Professor Tony Vinsons social research identified the key role of social cohesion
in combating the impact of entrenched community disadvantage. Three measures of high community cohesion used: participation in organised recreation/sporting groups volunteering availability of informal help or assistance Whole of Government Intervention seen to be largely
rhetorical in practice State government departments still largely operate in isolation from one another. Even seen to be in competition for financial resources Lack of integrated planning is confronting. 2009 Review of the Planning and Environment Act 1987: - proposed insertion of health in the
objectives of the Act namely: to balance environmental, social and economic considerations and to respond to population and demographic changes in decisions about the land use and development of land. Focus on integrating public health and wellbeing and land use planning.
Proposed Healthy Town Program: - building on a series of community demonstration programs aimed at building health communities in Victoria - contributing to the development of a Public Health and Wellbeing Plan for Victoria - abandoned following the 2009 Victorian bushfire crisis. New Metropolitan Housing Strategy:
- the rapid planned expansion of the housing market poses both opportunities and threats - possible negative impact on public health and wellbeing goals - increased fears and perceptions about public safety and law and order issues often result - integrated planning can lead to more liveable communities and greater social cohesion
Ingredients of Integrated Planning: (in addition to increase in housing stock) - efficient provision of public transport - range of local educational and employment options - access to local health services - development of recreational and leisure facilities - increased collaboration with local government and non government services
Conclusions from this consultancy: substantial implications for national social policy reform in Australia today. focus on crime prevention and development of cohesive, liveable and affordable communities.
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