Morphology Morphology The study of words Studies the internal structure, and how they are created and formed. A word is a string of small meaningful symbols Those meaningful symbols are called morphemes. Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units in a word. A morpheme can has a meaningful meaning, or a meaningful grammatical function.
Morphemes Free Bound Derivation vs Inflection Derivational morphology lexical categories open lexical category (content words) nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
closed lexical category (function words) pronouns, determiners (the, this, a, your etc.), prepositions, and conjunctions (and, or, but). Cat Catty Form: /kt/ /kti/ Meaning:
domesticated feline spiteful, (fighting) like a domesticated feline Lexical Category: Noun Adjective Cat is the root for catty
Simply, it is about adding little things to the root. Those added pieces are called affixes. The form in which an affix is added to is called the base or the stem. So, cat is both a root and a stem. A derivational process is the one in which one operation or more is applied on a form of a word to make a new word of a different lexical category.
/kts/ Meaning domesticated feline domesticated feline (plural) Lexical Category Noun Noun The creation of different grammatical forms of a word is called inflection
List of Inflectional Affixes in English Function Affix(es) Attaches to Example 3rd personal singular present -s verbs
He waits there at noon. Past tense -ed Verbs He waited there yesterday. Progressive aspect -ing Verbs He is waiting there now
Past participle -en, -ed Verbs He has eaten the cookies. He has tasted the cookies. Plural -s Nouns The students are in the
classroom. Possessive -s , -s Nouns The students book. The students books. Comparative -er Adjectives, Adverbs
Ahmed is taller than Ali. Ahmed is faster than Ali. Superlative -est Adjectives, Adverbs Ahmed is the tallest in class. Ahmed runs fastest of all. Morphological Processes Affixation: Using prefixes and suffixes. e.g. eats, cats, playing
Compounding: Forming new words by joining two or more independent words. e.g. girlfriend , textbook, air-conditioner, aircraft carrier, lifeguard chair. Reduplication: Forming new words by doubling either an entire free morpheme (total reduplication) or part of it (partial reduplication). e.g. bye-bye, ta-ta, (In Taglog: ibu =mother --> ibuibu = mothers)
Alternations: Made by making morpheme internal modifications. e.g. man --> men , goose --> geese, foot --> feet, feed ---> fed ---> fed , swim --> swam ---> swum Morphological Types of languages Languages Analytic Synthetic made up of sequences of free morphemes
bound morphemes are attached to other morphemes, so a word may be made up of several meaningful elements. ex: Mandarin Chinese [ w mn tn tin ] I plural play piano We are playing the piano
ex: Hungarian [ z mber l:tj kuca:t ] the man-(subject) sees the dog(object) The man sees the dog [ kuc l:tj z mbert ] the dog sees the man-(object) The dog sees the man
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