Morphology Morphology The study of words Studies the internal structure, and how they are created and formed. A word is a string of small meaningful symbols Those meaningful symbols are called morphemes. Morphemes are the smallest meaningful units in a word. A morpheme can has a meaningful meaning, or a meaningful grammatical function.

Morphemes Free Bound Derivation vs Inflection Derivational morphology lexical categories open lexical category (content words) nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.

closed lexical category (function words) pronouns, determiners (the, this, a, your etc.), prepositions, and conjunctions (and, or, but). Cat Catty Form: /kt/ /kti/ Meaning:

domesticated feline spiteful, (fighting) like a domesticated feline Lexical Category: Noun Adjective Cat is the root for catty

Simply, it is about adding little things to the root. Those added pieces are called affixes. The form in which an affix is added to is called the base or the stem. So, cat is both a root and a stem. A derivational process is the one in which one operation or more is applied on a form of a word to make a new word of a different lexical category.

Affixes: prefixes suffixes infixes circumfixes interfixes transfixes Inflectional morphology Cat Cats Form /kt/

/kts/ Meaning domesticated feline domesticated feline (plural) Lexical Category Noun Noun The creation of different grammatical forms of a word is called inflection

List of Inflectional Affixes in English Function Affix(es) Attaches to Example 3rd personal singular present -s verbs

He waits there at noon. Past tense -ed Verbs He waited there yesterday. Progressive aspect -ing Verbs He is waiting there now

Past participle -en, -ed Verbs He has eaten the cookies. He has tasted the cookies. Plural -s Nouns The students are in the

classroom. Possessive -s , -s Nouns The students book. The students books. Comparative -er Adjectives, Adverbs

Ahmed is taller than Ali. Ahmed is faster than Ali. Superlative -est Adjectives, Adverbs Ahmed is the tallest in class. Ahmed runs fastest of all. Morphological Processes Affixation: Using prefixes and suffixes. e.g. eats, cats, playing

Compounding: Forming new words by joining two or more independent words. e.g. girlfriend , textbook, air-conditioner, aircraft carrier, lifeguard chair. Reduplication: Forming new words by doubling either an entire free morpheme (total reduplication) or part of it (partial reduplication). e.g. bye-bye, ta-ta, (In Taglog: ibu =mother --> ibuibu = mothers)

Alternations: Made by making morpheme internal modifications. e.g. man --> men , goose --> geese, foot --> feet, feed ---> fed ---> fed , swim --> swam ---> swum Morphological Types of languages Languages Analytic Synthetic made up of sequences of free morphemes

bound morphemes are attached to other morphemes, so a word may be made up of several meaningful elements. ex: Mandarin Chinese [ w mn tn tin ] I plural play piano We are playing the piano

ex: Hungarian [ z mber l:tj kuca:t ] the man-(subject) sees the dog(object) The man sees the dog [ kuc l:tj z mbert ] the dog sees the man-(object) The dog sees the man

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Jeopardy Review Game

    Jeopardy Review Game

    What was the impact of the crusades?. Read pages 64-65 "Long Term Consequences" in your textbook. Make a point form list of the . impacts . while you read. paragraph. Goal: Write a 5+ sentence paragraph that answers the question.
  • The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500)

    The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500)

    Some Arab tribes refuse to follow Abu so he has to go and fight them to come back. ... C. appeal to all classes of Muslims, people of different religions, and conquered Persians. D. give more authority to wealthy Muslims...
  • University College London - UNICA - Network of Universities ...

    University College London - UNICA - Network of Universities ...

    EC funding programmes: UCL's Strategy, Challenges and Experience Greta Borg-Carbott European Research and Development Office University College London
  • Using DIDLS to Determine Tone

    Using DIDLS to Determine Tone

    English I G/T - 2011-2012 To determine tone Examine the diction in the passage. Using your knowledge of the diction, determine the possible tone(s) of the passage. Check your tone determinations by examining imagery, detail, and syntax and seeing if...
  • Case 1: First tonic-clonic seizure Seizures and epilepsy

    Case 1: First tonic-clonic seizure Seizures and epilepsy

    Reasons are: still need to meet IHS criteria; 10-34% of all stroke pts experience headaches around the time of their stroke - more common in post circ stroke. And some types of post circ strokes eg thalamus also cause "visual...
  • Systematic Study of Au-Au Collisions at the AGS by E917

    Systematic Study of Au-Au Collisions at the AGS by E917

    HBT @ RHIC: Challenge for Theory Huge (15 fm) source doesn't exist at RHIC Ro/Rs ~ 1 Some HBT definitions kT: pair transverse momentum Bertsch-Pratt (BP) parameterization Yano-Koonin-Podgoretsky (YKP) parameterization MC studies First principles HBT generator [Kadija & Seyboth, PLB...
  • Conditional Statements - Loudoun County Public Schools

    Conditional Statements - Loudoun County Public Schools

    A conditional statement is FALSE only when the hypothesis is true, but the conclusion is false.. Conditional Statements can be true or false: A . counterexample. is an example used to show that a statement is not always true and...
  • Airport Obstruction management

    Airport Obstruction management

    Airport Obstruction management <insert airport photo> <Insert name of airport> <Insert meeting/event name> <insert location and date> <This presentation was designed to be customizable for your airport circumstances with the general audience being the local government planning/zoning staff, local elected...