Molecules of Life By: Oliver-John Bright and Kety Silva Biological Molecules The four main classes of biological molecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. They are known as macromolecules which are giant molecules formed by the
joining of smaller molecules. Macromolecules Most macromolecules are polymers built from monomers. A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many other similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. The building blocks of a polymer are called monomers and they can have different functions of their own. The synthesis and break down
of polymers Monomers are connected covalently together through the loss of a water molecule this process is called a condensation reaction or dehydration reaction. One monomer contributes a hydroxyl and the other provides a hydrogen, and this process is continues like a chain until the polymer is created. Enzymes are specialized and used to speed up the chemical reactions. Hydrolysis is the opposite of a condensation reaction an it breaks down the polymers into monomers with the addition of a water molecule.
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material and they are known as both the sugar and the polymer of a sugar. Disaccharides are double sugars consisting of two monosaccharide joined by a condensation reaction or in other words a glycosidic linkage Ex: Maltose, sucrose (table sugar) Monosaccharide- are the simplest carbohydrate aka simple sugars CH2O Glucose is the most common monosaccharide C6H12O6
VERY IMPORTANT Polysaccharides are macromolecules and polymers with a few hundred or thousands of monosaccharide joined by glycosidic linkages. Storage Polysaccharides Starch is an important polysaccharide in plants and it is also found in potatoes, wheat corn, ect. In animals glycogen is a polysaccharide that is a easy source of energy. Structural Polysaccharides Cellulose is a major component of the tough cell
walls in plants. Chitin is another polysaccharides that makes up the tough exoskeleton of many insects and arthropods. Carbohydrates A fat is a constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules; a glycerol and fatty acids. This bond is called a esther linkage which is
a bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl resulting in a triacylglycerol. Fats are not polymers but they assemble smaller molecules by dehydration synthesis. Lipids Fats are hydrophobic due to the fact that they are composed of non- polar C-H bonds in the
hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids. An unsaturated fat have kinks where the cis. bonds are located and they prevent the molecules from packing together. They are liquid at room temp. hydronated vegetable oil means that the unsaturated fats have been turned into saturated with the addition of hydrogen. Peanut butter, margarine A saturated fatty acid does not have any double bonds between the carbon atoms. Ex. Butter, lard which are solid at room temp.
Phospholipids Phospholipids have two fatty acids assemble into attached to a glycerol bilayers which shields and the third hydroxyl the hydrophobic tails group of the glycerol from the water is joined to a outside of the cell. phosphate group
which has a negative charge. They are composed of a hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head and when added to water they self- Steroids Steroids are lipids that contain a carbon skeleton which consist of four fused
rings. Cholesterol is a steroid which is a common component of the cell membranes in animals. Many hormones such as human sex steroid are produced by cholesterol. Saturated fats and unsaturated fats play a heavy role on cholesterol levels in humans and too much can lead to health problems.
Proteins account for about 50% of the dry mass in organisms. Proteins can speed up chemical reactions, they play a role in structural support, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, and defense against foreign substances.
Enzymatic proteins aid in the selective acceleration of chemical reactions. They are the most important proteins and they regulate metabolism Proteins by acting upon a catalyst speeding up the reaction. Storage proteins store amino acids
Transport proteins aids in the transport of other substances. Hormonal proteins coordinate the organisms activities Receptor proteins respond to the cells stimuli Contractile and motor proteins control the movement in a cell The defense proteins protect and fight against disease Amino Acids
Amino acids are monomer and they are organic molecules which posses both a carboxyl, amino group, hydrogen atom and the R group side chain. The side chain determines the unique characteristics of an amino acid and are most found in acidic amino acids. Amino acids join and form
polymers by dehydration reactions and when the carboxyl and the amino groups are positioned next to each other. This results in a covalent bond called a peptide bond. A polypeptide is created when this reaction is completed over and over again.
Polypeptides Polypeptides are the polymers of proteins and a specific protein consist of one or more polypeptide folded and coiled into specific structures. The amino acids sequences usually determine what threedimensional shape the protein will take.
Primary Structure Is a proteins unique sequence of amino acids Ex. Transthyretin is a globular protein that transports vitamin A and a thyroid hormone throughout the body. Secondary Structure The coils and folds in a proteins polypeptide
chains are referred to as secondary structure and it is the result of hydrogen bonds between the repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone. Individually the hydrogen bonds are weak but together they form a particular shape to the protein. A helix is a secondary structure and it is a delicate coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every forth amino acid. A b-pleaded sheet is another type and it makes up the core of many globular proteins.
Tertiary Structure Is the overall shape of the polypeptide resulting from the interactions between the side chains (R groups) of the amino acids Hydrophobic interactions are when amino acids with the non- polar side chains usually end up clustered at the core of the protein, and out of contact with water and once they are together the interaction keeps they connected. Disulfide bridges are formed when two
cysteine monomers, amino acids with sulfhydryl groups on their side chains, are brought closer by the folding proteins Quaternary Structure Is the overall protein structure that results from the fusion of polypeptide subunits due to the fact that some proteins consist of two or more polypeptide chains
fused into a functional macromolecule. Nucleic Acids A gene is a unit of inheritance and they have DNA which is polymer belonging to the class of nucleic acids. There are two types of Nucleic Acids Ribonucleic Acids (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) They help living organisms to reproduce and pass on the traits from one generation to the next.
Nucleic acids are macromolecules that exist as polymers called polynucleotide. The monomers are called nucleotides. A nucleotide is composed of three parts Nitrogenous base A pentose sugar A phosphate group and without the phosphate group it is a nucleoside There are two types of nitrogenous bases known as pyrimidines which has a sixmembered rings of carbon and nitrogen. - The members are Cytosine (C), Thymine (T)
and Uracil (U) The other nitrogenous base are the Purines which are larger with a six- membered fused into a five -member ring - The members are Adenosine (A), Guanine (G) Purines and Pyrimidines are different due to their functional groups(A), (G), (C) are found in all types of nucleic acids but (T) is only found in DNA and (U) is only found in RNA DNA lacks an oxygen on the second carbon in the ring causing it to be different from RNA.
Nucleotide polymers Adjacent nucleotides are joined by covalent bonds called phophodiester linkages between the H group and the 3 carbon of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the 5 carbon of the next nucleotide. This then creates a repeating pattern of sugar- phosphate The DNA double helix RNA consist of a single
polynucleotide chain, however DNA molecules have two polynucleotide spirals around an imaginary axis forming a double helix. In 1953 scientist determined that DNA was a three dimensional structure and the opposite 5-3 are referred to as an antiparallel. The two polynucleotides are held together by hydrogen bonds between the paired bases.
Certain bases connect with each other: Adenine (A) is paired with Thymine (T) and Guanine (G) is paired with Cytosine (C) Ex: AGGTCCG TCCAGGC This enables DNA to make up the precise copies of the genes. THE END Bibliography Images:
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