Chapter 5: New and Emerging Process Methodologies Problems with Traditional Processes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Focused on and oriented towards large projects and lengthy development time (years)--- started SWE Inability to cope with changes in requirements and technology fast enough --- formal change mgmt Assumes requirements are completely understood at
beginning of project --- stable requirements Starting to rely on non-sustainable heroic and lengthy development effort by the developers --- hard to maintain constantly high productivity Complex set of activities --- needed process experts Waste or duplication of effort, especially in documentation --- formal documentation needed for long and large project communications More Recent Processes: Agile Methodologies Family of software development methodologies: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Short releases and multiple iterations Incremental design/development User involvement (especially for in-house) Minimal documentation Informal communications Assumes changes The Agile Manifesto We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. left 1. Individuals and interactions 2. Working software 3. Customer collaboration 4. Responding to change
----- http://www.agilemanifesto.org right over processes and tools over comprehensive documentation over contract negotiation over following a plan ---dogmatically Some Agile Methodologies Extreme Programming (XP) --- the first by Beck (1990s) Crystal Clear/Orange by Alister Cockburn SCRUM ---- currently popular (not really part of Agile --- partially agile) RUP (rational unified process) Microsoft Solutions Framework (tool/process)
XPs Core Values Communication (between team and with customers) Simplicity (in design and code) Feedback (at many levels) Courage (to make and implement difficult decision) XPs Fundamental Principles Rapid feedback Simplicity Incremental change Embrace change
Quality work Directly from core values XPs Lesser/Other Principles Ongoing learning Small initial investment Playing to win
Concrete experiments Open, honest communications Working with peoples instincts Accepting responsibility Local adaptation Traveling light Honest measurement XPs 12 Key Practices Based on the concept of quick and constant feedback mechanism involving: some recognition of human aspects
Planning Game (Small Units of Requirements) Onsite Customer (Immediate and better feedback) Metaphor (Use one set of metaphor for design/architecture) Simple Design (Just enough to cover whats needed) Coding Standard (Facilitates better communication) Collective Code Ownership (Peer pressure to improve code) Pair Programming (Feedback and shared improvements)
Refactoring (Continuous examination for duplicative design/code) Continuous Functional and Unit Testing (100% completion) Small/short releases Continuous Integration (integrating of small releases) 40 hour work (high morale and energy level) Extreme Programming Process Onsite Customers Coding standards Planning Game Simple Design Pair Programming
Functional &Unit Test System Metaphors Refactoring Collective Code Ownership Small/short Release Continuous Integration Larger Release Adhere to 40 hour work week as much as possible ! -- sustainable pace Crystal Family of Methodologies
Cockburn classified projects via: Size (by number of developers involved) Criticality (by losses a malfunction or defect will cause quality) Priority (time pressure on the project) Alistair Cockburn introduced a family of 3 methodologies Crystal Clear ---- for non-critical projects (6-8 people) Crystal Orange ---- for critical projects (up to 40 people) Crystal Orange Web for web development Scrum Development Process (Currently Popular) First introduced by Takeuchi and Nonaka (Japan) in 1986 modeled after the way rugby game is played. Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle published a book, Agile Software Development with Scrum, in 2001.
It is an incremental and iterative development approach: Develops small sprints, or increments (of features) in a short cycle of about 2-3 weeks. There are 3 main roles Product Owner who talks to & decide with users about the content of each sprint Scrum Master who runs the sprints Scrum Team of about 7-8 members who develop the sprint
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