Motion - PC\|MAC

Motion - PC\|MAC

Section 3: Clouds and Precipitation Clouds vary in shape, size, height of formation, and type of precipitation. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions

What is the difference between stable and unstable air? How do low, middle, high, and vertical development clouds differ? How does precipitation form? Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Vocabulary Review

New condensation Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

condensation nucleus orographic lifting cumulus stratus cirrus precipitation coalescence Clouds and Precipitation Cloud Formation As a warm air mass rises, it expands and cools adiabatically.

The cooling of an air mass as it rises can cause water vapor in the air mass to condense. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Cloud A condensation nucleus is a small particle in the atmosphere around which water droplets can form.

When the number of these droplets is large enough, a cloud is visible. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Cloud Formation Atmospheric stability As an air mass rises, it cools. However, the air mass will continue to rise as long as it is warmer than the surrounding air.

When an air mass sinks back to its original position and resists rising, it is considered stable. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Cloud Formation Atmospheric stability The stability of air masses determines the type of clouds that form and the associated weather patterns.

Stable air has a tendency to resist movement. Unstable air does not resist vertical displacement. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Cloud Formation Atmospheric stability When the temperature of a mass of air is greater than the

temperature of the surrounding air, the air mass rises. When the temperature of the surrounding air is greater than that of the air mass, it sinks. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Cloud Formation Atmospheric lifting Clouds can form when moist air rises, expands, and cools enough for water vapor to condense.

Clouds can also form when air is forced upward or lifted by mechanical processes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Cloud Formation Atmospheric lifting Orographic lifting occurs when an air mass is forced to rise over a topographic barrier.

Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Cloud Formation Atmospheric lifting Air can be lifted by convergence, which occurs when air moves into the same area from different directions and some of the air is forced upward. This process is even more pronounced when air masses at

different temperatures collide. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Types of Clouds Clouds are generally classified by the altitudes at which they form and by their shapes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation

Types of Clouds Low clouds Cumulus clouds are puffy, lumpy-looking clouds that usually occur below 2000 m. Another type of cloud that forms at heights below 2000 m is a stratus, a layered sheetlike cloud that covers much or all of the sky in a given area. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education

Clouds and Precipitation Types of Clouds Middle clouds Altocumulus and altostratus clouds form at altitudes between 2000 m and 6000 m and are made up of ice crystals and water droplets. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Types of Clouds High clouds

High clouds, made up of ice crystals, form at heights above 6000 m where temperatures are below freezing. Some, such as cirrus clouds, often have a wispy, indistinct appearance. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Types of Clouds Vertical development clouds If the air that makes up a cumulus cloud is unstable, the cloud will continue to grow upward through middle altitudes as a towering

cumulonimbus. If conditions are right, it can reach the tropopause. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Clouds BrainPOP FPO Add link to BrainPOP from ConnectED here. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation

Precipitation All forms of water that fall from clouds to the ground are precipitation. Rain, snow, sleet, and hail are the four main types of precipitation. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation

Precipitation Coalescence Coalescence occurs when cloud droplets collide and join together to form a larger droplet. When the droplets become too heavy to remain suspended in the cloud, they fall to Earth as precipitation. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation

Precipitation Snow, sleet, and hail The type of precipitation that reaches Earth depends on the vertical variation of temperature in the atmosphere. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Precipitation The water cycle Water moves from Earth to the atmosphere and back to Earth in

the water cycle. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Clouds and Precipitation Review Essential Questions What is the difference between stable and unstable air? How do low, middle, high, and vertical development clouds differ?

How does precipitation form? Vocabulary condensation nucleus stratus orographic lifting cirrus cumulus Copyright McGraw-Hill Education precipitation coalescence Clouds and Precipitation

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