MOTIVATION AND EMOTION CHAPTER 9 MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES AND CONCEPTS Motives are the needs, wants, interests, & desires
that propel people in certain directions. Motivation involves goal-directed behavior DRIVE THEORIES Homeostasis = a state of physiological equilibrium or stability Drive = hypothetical, internal state of tension
that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension Source: MicroSoft ClipArt DRIVE THEORY
Drive Theory = when individuals experience a drive, theyre motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction. emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions.
Source MicroSoft ClipArt INCENTIVE THEORIES Incentive = an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior emphasize environmental factors and downplay the biological bases of human motivation.
THE MOTIVATION OF HUNGER & EATING DIGESTIVE AND HORMONAL REGULATION The stomach can send two types of signals to the
brain that can inhibit eating. Fullness in volume Fullness in nutrients Vagus nerve carries information about the stretching of the stomach walls that indicates when the stomach is full.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE REGULATION OF HUNGER Organisms consume more food when it is palatable more is available when there is greater variety
in the presence of others Environmental cues, such as advertisements for food, can also promote eating. OPTIMAL AROUSAL THEORY Motivated to experience optimal levels of arousal.
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Maslow stated that our motivation is based on fulfilling our needs, starting with basic (food, shelter) and advancing to more complex issues (meaning of life).
SEXUAL MOTIVATION & BEHAVIOR EVOLUTIONARY ANALYSES OF HUMAN SEXUAL MOTIVATION Parental investment = what each sex has to investin terms of time, energy, survival risk, &
forgone opportunities (to pursue other goals)to produce and nurture offspring. THE MYSTERY OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION Kinsey viewed heterosexuality & homosexuality not as an all-or-none distinction but as end points
on a continuum. THE MYSTERY OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION Research in the 90s found 52% of the participants identical twins were gay, 22% of their fraternal twins were gay
11% of their adoptive brothers were gay. suggest that there is a genetic predisposition to homosexuality. OUT OF THE ORDINARY Asexual no sex drive
Queer no specific sexual orientation or gender identity. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE = THE NEED TO MASTER DIFFICULT CHALLENGES, TO OUTPERFORM OTHERS, AND TO MEET HIGH STANDARDS OF EXCELLENCE A C H I E V E M E N T: I N S E A R C H O F E XC E L L E N C E
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT Achievement = need to master difficult challenges & to excel, especially in competition with others. People who are relatively high in the need for achievement
work harder & more persistently than others. They delay gratification well pursue competitive careers. SITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR Atkinson theorizes = the tendency to pursue
achievement in a particular situation depends on: ones motivation to achieve success probability of success incentive value of success. SITUATIONAL DETERMINANTS OF ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR
The pursuit of achievement tends to increase when the probability & incentive value of success are high. The joint influence of these factors may explain why people high in achievement need tend to prefer challenges of intermediate difficulty.
THE ELEMENTS OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE THE COGNITIVE COMPONENT The cognitive component of emotion involves subjective feelings that have an evaluative aspect.
Emotions can be automatic & intense, and they are not easy to control. THE COGNITIVE COMPONENT Peoples cognitive appraisals of events in their lives determine the emotions they experience. Affective forecasting = predicting the intensity
and duration of their emotional reactions to events. We are consistently wrong in our predictions. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL COMPONENT physiological component of emotion = autonomic arousal.
emotions are accompanied by physical arousal EMOTION & AUTONOMIC AROUSAL THE BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT At the behavioral level, emotions are expressed through body language, with facial expressions
being particularly prominent. People can identify six fundamental emotions from facial expressions. (happy, sad, disgust, surprise, anger & fear) cross-cultural agreement in the identification of emotions based on facial expressions.
THE BEHAVIORAL COMPONENT facial-feedback hypothesis = facial muscles send signals that help the brain recognize the emotion one is experiencing. The facial expressions that go with various emotions may be largely innate
CULTURE & THE ELEMENTS OF EMOTION Display rules, which are norms that govern how much people show their emotions, vary across cultures. THEORIES OF EMOTION
THEORIES OF EMOTION. EXPLORING THE INGREDIENTS OF HAPPINESS Factors that do not Predict
Age Parenthood Intelligence and Attractiveness Moderately Good Predictors of
Happiness Health Social Activity EXPLORING THE INGREDIENTS OF HAPPINESS Strong Predictors of Happiness
Loving relationships Having a sense of purpose in work Genetics and Personality
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