Moving Towards War: US Foreign Policy 1934-1941

Moving Towards War: US Foreign Policy 1934-1941

WWII: Neutrality to War U S H I S T O R Y: S P I C O N A R D I Foreign Policy What was Americas foreign policy in the 1920s? Isolationism

Why would this policy continue into the 1930s? Great Depression; had to focus on the economy and domestic issues Isolationism? Really?

THE WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE (1921-22) U.S. hosted a naval conference in which it negotiated reductions in the navies of Britain, France, Italy, Japan, & the U.S. itself KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT (1928) an international agreement in which participant states promised

not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them" Do you recognize the cartoonist? Dr. Seuss

Why did Americans believe they could remain neutral? The separate beds meant they were separated by an ocean.

Europes diseases wouldnt spread to America How does this cartoon contradict the beliefs of the

American public illustrated in the previous cartoon? Neutrality Acts Neutrality Act of 1935 The President of the United States was banned from

Selling arms Providing loans Giving an form of assistance to nations involved in war

All U.S. citizens traveling on warring ships, did so at their own risk Neutrality Act of 1936 Extended the 1935 act for additional 14 months However, it exempted civil wars What is the message of this Dr. Seuss political cartoon?

According to Dr. Seuss, why did some Americans support neutrality? What is Dr. Seuss criticism of the U.S.s neutrality policy?

Neutrality Acts Neutrality Act of 1937 Forbids sale of arms to countries involved in civil wars Prohibits U.S. citizens from traveling on belligerent ships U.S. ships could not transport passengers or articles to belligerent nations Cash and Carry

U.S. could sell materials to belligerents if They paid cash Arranged for the transportation of those materials Lend-Lease Act Cash and Carry left the Allies short on cash Lend-Lease (1941)

U.S. could sell or lend war materials to any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States

FDR vowed to keep the U.S. out of war, but the country would become the arsenal of democracy FDR signing the Lend-Lease Act into legislation Lend-Lease Act

If your neighbors house is on fire, you dont sell him a hose. You lend it to him and take it back after the fire is out.

Pearl Harbor Japanese Aggression After the Nanjing Massacre, the U.S. supported China through the Lend-Lease Act Embargoes and Sanctions US froze Japans assets in America US refused to trade oil, steel and rubber to Japan

Japan needed these resources to continue its imperial march in the Pacific Pearl Harbor Tripartite Pact (1940) Japan, Germany, and Italy made an agreement that if a

country not involved in WWII attacked one of the three, the others would come to that countries aid In November 1941, U.S. intercepted Japanese messages, which revealed an assault in the Pacific was imminent Pearl Harbor Japan believed attacking Pearl Harbor would

cripple the US Pacific Fleet for 18 months, thus allowing them to continue their plans for a Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere.

Pearl Harbor The Japanese attacked in two waves. The first wave of Japanese planes were detected on radar, but believed to be US bombers

coming from California. Pearl Harbor Stats 2,340 military killed 48 civilian killed 1,143 military wounded 35 civilian wounded

DECEMBER 7, 1941: A DATE THAT WILL LIVE IN INFAMY The attack on Pearl Harbor prompted FDR to ask Congress for a declaration of war Congress votes 477 1 in favor of war

War Germany & Italy declares war on the U.S. on December 11, 1941

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