Unit Three The National Government CE.C&G.2 Analyze government systems within the United States in terms of their structure, function, and relationships. The Legislative Branch - also known as Congress - made up of two houses - Senate and House of Representatives - bicameral legislature - a total of 535 voting members and six non-voting members

- responsible for making laws House of Representatives - also known as the lower house - elected based on the states population (remember the Virginia Plan?) - there is a set number of 435 members in the House - members are appointed - in order to determine how many seats can be distributed in the House, a census is taken every ten years to see how many people live in each state (the next one is in 2020)

- voters elect representatives based on the constituent (ken-stich- House of Rep Elections - elections are in November of each even-numbered year (November 2016) -

representatives are elected for two terms - representatives are also known as congressmen Requirements and Responsibilities - 25 years old - a citizen for seven years

- term of two years - the head is known as the Speaker of the House (head of majority party) - the Speaker of the House is the third most powerful political politician - he is second in line to become president if the vice president cannot serve - elected by the House The Senate - also known as the upper house

- there are two senators from each state (remember the New Jersey Plan?) - they act as the jury for impeachment trials - have no time limit during a debate (in the Senate) Requirements and Responsibilities - each member has to be at least 30 years old - they have to be a citizen for nine years - serve for six year terms - the president of the senate is the vice

president along with the president pro tempore who is primarily present for all meetings and is elected by members of the Senate Majority and Minority - each house has majority and minority parties - they each have groups of floor leaders composed of majority/minority leaders and majority/minority whips - leaders direct each party, while party whips are responsible for keeping order between the two parties

- The Republican Party is the majority in the 2015-2017 House - The Republican Party is the majority in the 2015-2017 Senate How does this affect our government today? Dont Forget About Committees - each branch of government has acting committees - these committees decide on which bills and resolutions move forward - they are led by chairmen - joint committees - both senators and representatives - standing committee

- select committee - conference committee As a Whole, What Can Congress Do? - Congress has the responsibilities of making laws, or to legislate - they have four categories of powers: - delegated powers - implied powers - impeachment power - special powers

How a Bill Becomes a Law - a bill is a proposed law - a bill can be introduced into either house of Congress - one exception is an appropriation bill that involves spending money; it has to begin in the House. - a bill can come from as low as general citizens to as high up as the president (who is also the most influential) - the president gives the State of the Union address where they mention things they believe needs to be created and improved to help our country grow

The House and Senate Consider the Bill - remember a bill can be introduced in either house - they are assigned letters and numbers showing where the bill has been introduced -

the bill is sent to a standing committee (permanent congressional committee that meets regularly) - bills are put on a schedule and House Rules Committee decides how much time will be given for the debate (on whether the bill will be approved) - this debate is normally limited

- during the debate, the House acts as a Committee of the Whole, How the Senate Acts on the Bill - the bills goes through the same process when it is passed by the House (bills are also sent to committees) - after the committee meets, the bill is sent back to the Senate for a vote - senators are not limited to the amount of time they can debate a bill

- to prevent Senate from taking a vote on the bill, some senators threaten to talk for hours in order to delay a bill from being voted on - this is known as a filibuster The Final Bill is Sent to the President - When the bill passes, it is sent to the president - if they create different versions of the same bill, a conference committee is required to meet - they are made up of an equal number of senators and representatives who work to make a compromise on the bill then sent back to both houses

The President Acts on the Bill - There are three possible actions on a bill from Congress 1) may sign the bill and declare it a law 2) can veto the law, sending it back to Congress 3) president can choose to keep the bill for ten days without taking any action - if Congress is in session during this period, the bill automatically becomes a law - if Congress is not in session and it is not signed, it does not become a law

- instead the bill has been killed/kicked out by a pocket veto (this does not happen often) Delegated Powers - delegated powers - found in the Constitution - five different categories: - financing the government = raise and collect taxes, borrow money, print money - regulating and encouraging American trade and industry - defending the country - can declare law and wars (but not the president)

- creating lower courts such as local and state courts - providing for growth - regulate immigration, naturalization, govern territories, and to provide for the admission of new states Implied Powers and Impeachment Powers - implied powers - the Constitution says Congress has power to make laws that are necessary and proper - elastic clause - also known as the necessary and proper clause - impeach - accuse an office holder of misconduct - no president has been completely impeached

- Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton were impeached by the House but not the Senate (Nixon resigned before he could be tried) - Andrew Johnson served out the rest of Lincolns term after he was assassinated - He fired a disloyal member of his cabinet and violated an act that said Senate Special Powers The House - must start all bills for raising taxes

- power to impeach public officials - choose the president if no candidate receives enough electoral votes The Senate - all impeachment trials must be held here

- if a vice president does not receive enough votes, Senate chooses the vice president - all treaties with foreign nations must be approved by

votes - high officials appointed by the What Congress Cant Do - cannot pass ex post facto (after the fact) laws - this type of law makes something illegal after it has already been done

- cannot pass a bill of attainder - a law that punishes a person without a trial - What rights would this violate? - cannot suspend writs of habeas corpus - protects people from illegal imprisonment. A person cannot be put into

jail or prison until he or she has appeared before a judge. - cannot grant a title of nobility - no royal titles (kings, queens, princes, dukes, etc) The Executive Branch - the president is the chief - their job is to enforce laws

Requirements to be President - be a native-born US citizen be at least 35 years old have been a resident of the US for at least 14 years elected for four years two-term limit - 22nd amendment was passed limiting presidents to a two-term limit

- the president is paid $400,000 a year Presidential Responsibilities - is the Commander in Chief of the military (but cannot declare war!) - ask leaders of Executive Branch for advice on how to handle problems - give the yearly State of the Union address - decide if a bill becomes a law - follow the rules of the Constitution regardless to if they agree with it - replace Supreme Court justices - Justice Antonio Scalia just passed away February 13th, 2016

-"The American people should have a voice in the selection of their State of the Union Address State of the Union Address January 12, 2016 Line of Succession President Vice President Speaker of the House If all three of these individuals were unable to serve, the next person in

line is the president pro tempore (from the Senate) followed by cabinet members This is found under the 25th Amendment - There are 15 executive departments or 15 cabinet members - Their titles all begin with Secretary responsible for advising the president - for example the Secretary of Defense Maintaining National Security The Department of Defense - in charge of the armed forces and

military bases in both the United States and other countries - used in relief efforts when other countries suffer from natural disasters - the secretary of defense is always a civilian (nonmilitary) but has military officers act as assistants - the highest-ranking military officers of each branch form the Joint Chiefs

The Department of Homeland Security - established after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 - mission is to protect the nation against further terrorist attacks - provides federal assistance when natural disasters occur in the United States Review of Government Terms

- delegated powers - Legislative Branch - reserved powers -

Executive Branch - bicameral - Judicial Branch

- unicameral - Veto - governor

- Pocket Veto - Congress -

House of Representatives - Senate The Presidents Cabinet Match the cabinet names to their responsibilities Who Interprets the Law?

The Judicial Branch The Purposes of Laws - law - a rule of conduct or procedure established by a custom, agreement, or authority - created to protect life, liberty, and property (or the pursuit of happiness) - common good, personal safety, property Types of Laws Criminal

- aka breaking the law - involve police or law enforcement -

meant to protect society - cases go to either state or federal courts Civil - laws involving disputes

between individuals or groups - enforced by assigned departments - what is an example of

something a civil law would settle? Sources of Laws - statutory law - based on what a majority of citizens believe to be right or wrong - common law - comes from judges decisions that rely on common sense and previous knowledge - precedent - earlier decisions about a certain thing (in this case, the thing is law) - administrative law - deals with areas of daily life such as health

and safety - constitutional law - based on Constitution and Supreme Court decisions Court Systems - Judicial Branch - district and federal court systems - each has its own level of jurisdiction, or extent of authority - original jurisdiction is the authority of a court to hear and decide a case for the first time - tried in a district court by federal judges who are appointed for life by the president and must be approved by the Senate (written in

the Constitution) - can only be removed if they are impeached - appellate jurisdiction - the power to review decisions made by the lower courts Powers of Courts - remember the word jurisdiction from the last slide? There are different types of jurisdictions - exclusive jurisdiction - where one court has the power to make a judgement - concurrent jurisdiction - where multiple courts have the power

to make judgements - judicial process - provides rights for a fair trial - protected by the 4th, 5th, and 6th amendment Jurisdictions YOU DONT NEED TO WRITE THIS! Each department has their own areas of jurisdictions. If youre going 35 over the speed limit in Rockingham and a Pembroke police car is next to you, they cant pull you over. The reason is because you are in Rockinghams local jurisdiction.

I definitely do not suggest you decide to break the speed limit because someone cant officially pull you over. Just an example of jurisdiction. - Who Makes Decisions in the Judicial Branch? judges - local, state, federal - magistrates - deals with minor offences - US attorney - chief federal law enforcer

- US Marshals - federal law enforcement agency - in charge of transferring prisoners - effective operations - witness protection The Supreme Court The Supreme Court - rules by the law of the land and hold ultimate authority - nine judges who serve for life, one judge being the Chief Justice - today the Chief Justice is John Roberts Jr.

- have a power known as judicial review - allows courts to decide whether a law or a presidential action is in agreement with the Constitution (aka, if it is unconstitutional) - John Marshall established Supreme Courts role in federal court system - Marbury v. Madison is the most important case in history Marbury v. Madison - was the first case to apply judicial review (last slide) - made the Supreme Court a

separate branch - Supreme Court can check powers of other branches (checks and balances) - what laws are or are not constitutional - the Constitution does not How Does a Court Case Get to the Supreme Court? 94 district courts 12 Appeals Courts Supreme Court

- if cases deal with issues between states or foreign affairs - if cases from federal courts are appealed - if cases deal directly with conflicts of constitutional rights - remember judicial review - most justices are lawyers (but do not have to be) - there are approximately 7,500 requests each year for the Supreme Court to hear a case Law Enforcement Agencies

Weve talked about civil and criminal laws and what court systems deal with, but who deals with the big league issues? FBI SBI DEA CIA National Guard Reserves Homeland Security

Federal Bureau of Investigation - aka the FBI - security agency involving intelligence and law enforcement responsibilities -

core values include obedience to the Constitution - locations around the world with Headquarters in DC - deals with national and international issues involving terrorism, civil rights, and organized crime

Fun Facts? - established in 1908 and officially named the FBI March 22, 1935 State Bureau of Investigation - SBI - division of the Department of Public Safety - directed by B.W. Collier (who has

been recently sworn in) - investigates homicides, robberies, property crimes, and other serious cases - located in Raleigh Some People Have No Idea What the SBI is sooo... Here are some examples of SBI cases in this area. They have some pretty legit titles.

Cocaine, cash, guns seized: Five from Robeson among 10 charged by Sa rah Willets Statewide raids include 5 Robeson gaming operations by Sarah Willets Drug Enforcement Agency - DEA - controlled substance laws and regulations - investigation and preparation for prosecution of violators

(prosecuted by U.S. attorney) - management of drug intelligence between federal, state, local, and foreign officials Central Intelligence Agency - CIA -

provides national security intelligence to US policy makers - director is nominated by the President with advice and consent of Senate -

Separated into four basic components that create the intelligence cycle: 1) National Clandestine Service (foreign intelligence) 2) Directorate of Intelligence (be educated, wellinformed and worldly, quick analyzer of data 3) Directorate of Science & Technology 4) Directorate of Support National Guard Reserves - believed to be created as early as 1636 involving local militias - serve communities and the

country - responds to domestic emergencies, overseas combat missions, counterdrug efforts - operate in your home state and are citizen soldiers Homeland Security -

lead by Jeh Johnson who is officially known as the Secretary of Homeland Security - created after September 11, 2001 - responsible for protection of

transnational threats - there are five homeland security missions: 1. Prevent terrorism and enhancing security International Revenue Service IRS is the U.S. government agency responsible for tax

collection and tax law enforcement Involves your taxes - filing, refunds, payments John Koskinen is the 48th Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service The Internal Revenue Service is the nation's tax collection agency and administers the Internal Revenue Code enacted by Congress Federal Emergency Management Agency - F.E.M.A. - support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain and improve our capability to

prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from and mitigate all hazards. Foreign Policy Foreign Policy - governments plan for interacting with other countries of the world - important for preserving national security - support economic growth and human rights around the world - increase support for American values like democracy and freedom The President and Executive Branch initiate our foreign policy responses

to world events and work with the Legislative Branch to carry out those responses. - an alliance is created when two or more countries commit to help each other Foreign Aid - help or assistance that we give to other countries, usually through our Department of State. - The main goal of our foreign aid is to create friendships abroad and foster future trading partners. - Foreign aid comes in many forms.

- The most common are economic, like money military, like soldiers helping after a disaster advice, like how to create a democracy Military - countrys troops, led by our President who is called the Commanderin-Chief - main goal of our military is to prevent war and protect the United States. - Department of Defense is made up of the following branches: 1) Army 2) Navy 3) Air Force

4) Marines Franklin Roosevelt - started the framework for international system with the United Nations, won WWII, and helped reshape the global system - United Nations - formed in 1945 to promote peaceful coexistence and

worldwide cooperation. Ronald Reagan - Made a deal to eliminate all strategic nuclear weapons at the Reykjavik summit (USSR dealing with Mikhail Gorbachev). Treaties and Domestic Policy

- treaty - are a formal agreement between countries that, like laws, must be followed - The President is responsible for negotiating and signing treaties. All treaties must be approved by 2/3rds of the Senate. - deals with national problems and the nations borders

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