Muscles acting on the shoulder and upper limb

Muscles acting on the shoulder and upper limb

Muscles acting on the shoulder and upper limb ppt#5 Muscles Muscles Acting on Shoulder and Upper Limb compartments spaces in which muscles are organized and are separated by fibrous connective tissue sheets (fasciae) each compartment contains one or more functionally related muscles along with their nerve and blood supplies muscles of upper limbs divided into anterior and posterior compartments muscles of lower limbs divided into anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral compartments intermuscular septa (thick fascia) separates compartments compartment syndrome one of the muscles or blood 10-2 vessels in a compartment is injured Compartment Syndrome fasciae of arms and legs enclose muscle compartments very snugly if a blood vessel in a compartment is damaged, blood and tissue fluid accumulate in the compartment fasciae prevent compartment from expanding with increasing pressure compartment syndrome mounting pressure on the muscles, nerves and blood vessel triggers a sequence of degenerative events blood flow to compartment is obstructed by pressure if ischemia (poor blood flow) persists for more than 2 4 hours, nerves begin to die after 6 hours, muscles begin to die nerves can regenerate after pressure relieved, but muscle damage is permanent myoglobin in urine indicates compartment syndrome treatment immobilization of limb and fasciotomy incision to relieve compartment pressure 10-3 Muscles Acting on the Shoulder originate on the axial skeleton

insert on clavicle and scapula scapula loosely attached to thoracic cage capable of great movement rotation, elevation, depression, protraction, retraction clavicle braces the shoulder and moderates movements 10-4 Anterior Group of Muscles of Pectoral Girdle pectoralis minor serratus anterior ribs 1-9 to medial border of scapula abducts and rotates or depresses scapula ribs 3-5 to coracoid process of scapula draws scapula laterally Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Subclavius Pectoralis minor (cut) Pectoralis minor Internal intercostals Serratus anterior External intercostals Rectus abdominis (cut) Rectus sheath External abdominal oblique (cut) Internal abdominal oblique (cut) Internal abdominal oblique

Posterior wall of rectus sheath (rectus abdominis removed) Inguinal ligament Transverse abdominal (cut) (b) Deep Figure 10.15b 10-5 Muscles Acting on Scapula Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral rotation Trapezius (superior part) Serratus anterior Elevation Levator scapulae Trapezius (superior part) Rhomboideus major Rhomboideus minor Medial rotation Levator scapulae Rhomboideus major Rhomboideus minor Depression Trapezius (inferior part) Serratus anterior Retraction Rhomboideus major Rhomboideus minor Trapezius Protraction Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior Figure 10.23

10-6 Posterior Group of Muscles of Pectoral Girdle four muscles of posterior group Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superficial Deep trapezius - superficial levator scapulae, rhomboideus minor, and rhomboideus major - deep trapezius stabilizes scapula and shoulder elevates and depresses shoulder apex levator scapulae elevates scapula flexes neck laterally rhomboideus minor Semispinalis capitis Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis Trapezius Levator scapulae Rhomboideus minor Rhomboideus major Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Deltoid

Teres major Serratus anterior Erector spinae Serratus posterior inferior Latissimus dorsi External abdominal oblique External abdominal oblique Thoracolumbar fascia Internal abdominal oblique Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Gluteus maximus Lateral rotators retracts scapula and braces shoulder rhomboideus major same as rhomboideus minor Figure 10.17 10-7 Posterior Scapular Muscles Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superficial Deep

Semispinalis capitis Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis Trapezius Levator scapulae Rhomboideus minor Rhomboideus major Supraspinatus Deltoid Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Erector spinae Serratus anterior Serratus posterior inferior Latissimus dorsi External abdominal oblique External abdominal oblique Thoracolumbar fascia Internal abdominal oblique Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Gluteus maximus Lateral rotators

Figure 10.17 10-8 Muscles Acting on Arm nine muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert on humerus two are axial muscles because they originate on axial skeleton pectoralis major flexes, adducts, and medially rotates humerus latissimus dorsi adducts and medially rotated humerus Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Supraspinatus Deltoid Clavicle Spine of scapula Sternum Greater tubercle of humerus Infraspinatus Humerus Pectoralis major Teres minor Teres major Triceps brachii: Triceps brachii: Lateral head Long head Coracobrachialis Lateral head

Long head Medial head Biceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Brachialis Brachioradialis (a) Anterior view Figure 10.24a (b) Posterior view Figure 10.24b 10-9 Muscles Acting on Arm Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. seven scapular muscles Clavicle Sternum originate on scapula deltoid rotates and abducts arm intramuscular injection site teres major extension and medial rotation of humerus Deltoid Pectoralis major Triceps brachii: Lateral head

Long head Medial head Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Figure 10.24a (a) Anterior view Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Supraspinatus Spine of scapula Greater tubercle of humerus Infraspinatus coracobrachialis Humerus Teres minor flexes and medially rotates arm Teres major Triceps brachii: Lateral head Long head Latissimus dorsi remaining four form the rotator cuff that reinforce the shoulder joint Figure 10.24b 10-10 (b) Posterior view

Back Muscles of Cadaver Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Levator scapulae Rhomboideus minor Rhomboideus major Deltoid Infraspinatus Teres minor Medial border of scapula Teres major Triceps brachii: Lateral head Long head Latissimus dorsi (b) Posterior view The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray, photographer/Don Kincaid, dissections Figure 10.25b 10-11 Rotator Cuff Muscles tendons of the remaining four scapular muscles form the rotator cuff SITS muscles for the first letter of their names supraspinatus infraspinatus teres minor subscapularis tendons of these muscles merge with the joint capsule of the shoulder as they cross it in route to the humerus holds head of humerus into glenoid cavity supraspinatus tendon most easily damaged 10-12

Rotator Cuff Muscles Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anterior Rotator cuff (SITS) muscles: Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Posterior Clavicle Acromion Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Subscapularis Inferior angle Figure 10.26 10-13 Anterior View of Cadaver Chest Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Deltoid Pectoralis major Biceps brachii: Long head Short head Serratus anterior External abdominal oblique (a) Anterior view The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Rebecca Gray, photographer/Don Kincaid, dissections Figure 10.25a

10-14 Muscles Acting on Forearm elbow and forearm capable of flexion, extension, pronation, and supination carried out by muscles in both brachium (arm) and antebrachium (forearm) muscles with bellies in the arm (brachium) principal elbow flexors anterior compartment brachialis and biceps brachii brachialis produces 50% more power than biceps brachii brachialis is prime mover of elbow flexion principal elbow extensor posterior compartment triceps brachii prime mover of elbow extension 10-15 Muscles Acting on Forearm muscles with bellies in the forearm (antebrachium) most forearm muscles act on the hand and wrist brachioradialis flexes elbow anconeus extends elbow pronator quadratus prime mover in forearm pronation pronator teres assists pronator quadratus in pronation supinator supinates the forearm 10-16 Muscles Acting on Forearm Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 10.24c principal flexor brachialis

Biceps brachii: Long head Short head Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. synergistic flexors biceps brachii brachioradialis Clavicle Sternum Deltoid Pectoralis major Triceps brachii: Lateral head Long head Medial head Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis (c) Anterior view Coracobrachialis Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Supraspinatus principal extensor triceps brachii Spine of scapula Greater tubercle of humerus Infraspinatus Humerus Teres minor (a) Anterior view

Teres major Figure 10.24a Triceps brachii: Lateral head Long head Latissimus dorsi Figure 10.24b (b) Posterior view 10-17 Supination and Pronation Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Supinator Supinator Pronator teres Pronator teres Ulna Ulna Radius Pronator quadratus Radius Pronator quadratus Biceps brachii

Biceps brachii Radius Radius Bursa Supinator Supinator Bursa Ulna Ulna (b) Muscle actions in supination (b) Muscle actions in supination (a) Supination Figure 10.27a supination supinator muscle palm facing anteriorly or superiorly (c) Pronation Figure 10.27c pronation pronator quadratus and pronator teres palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly

10-18 Anterior Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand extrinsic muscles of the forearm intrinsic muscles in the hand itself extrinsic muscle actions flexion and extension of wrist and digits radial and ulnar flexion finger abduction and adduction thumb opposition Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Brachialis Common flexor tendon Common flexor tendon Pronator teres Aponeurosis of biceps brachii Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Anterior view Interosseous membrane Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis Flexor digitorum superficialis

Flexor retinaculum Figure 10.29 Palmar aponeurosis (a) Superficial flexors (b) Intermediate flexor Supinator Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor pollicis longus Flexor pollicis longus Flexor digitorum superficialis tendons Flexor digitorum superficialis tendons Flexor digitorum profundus tendons

Flexor digitorum profundus tendons (c) Deep flexors 10-19 Anterior Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Anterior (Flexor) Compartment superficial layer flexor carpi radialis flexor carpi ulnaris flexor digitorum superficialis palmaris longus Anterior (Flexor) Compartment deep layer flexor digitorum profundus flexor pollicis longus 10-20 Posterior Muscles Acting on Wrist & Hand extension of wrist and fingers, adduct / abduct wrist extension and abduction of thumb (pollicis) brevis - short, ulnaris - on ulna side of forearm Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Triceps brachii Brachioradialis Olecranon Extensor carpi radialis longus Anconeus Posterior view

Anconeus Supinator Extensor carpi radialis brevis Flexor carpi ulnaris Abductor pollicis longus Extensor digitorum Extensor carpi ulnaris Abductor pollicis longus Extensor digiti minimi Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Extensor indicis Extensor pollicis longus Tendon of extensor indicis Tendons of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

Tendons of extensor digitorum Figure 10.30 (a) Superficial extensors (b) Deep extensors 10-21 Posterior Muscles Acting on Wrist and Hand Posterior (Extensor) Compartment superficial layer extensor carpi radialis longus extensor carpi radialis brevis extensor digitorum extensor digiti minimi extensor carpi ulnaris Posterior (Extensor) Compartment deep layer abductor pollicis longus extensor pollicis brevis extensor pollicis longus extensor indicis 10-22 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome flexor retinaculum bracelet-like fibrous sheet that the flexor tendons of the

extrinsic muscles that flex the wrist pass on their way to their insertions carpal tunnel tight space between the flexor retinaculum and the carpal bones flexor tendons passing through the tunnel are enclosed in tendon sheaths enable tendons to slide back and forth quite easily carpal tunnel syndrome - prolonged, repetitive motions of wrist and fingers can cause tissues in the carpal tunnel to become inflamed, swollen, or fibrotic puts pressure on the median nerve of the wrist that passes through the carpal tunnel along with the flexor tendons tingling and muscular weakness in the palm and medial side of the hand pain may radiate to arm and shoulder treatment anti-inflammatory drugs, immobilization of the wrist, and sometimes surgery to remove part or all of flexor retinaculum 10-23 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis Lumbrical Opponens digiti minimi repetitive motions cause inflammation and pressure on median nerve Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Adductor pollicis Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Flexor pollicis brevis Abductor digiti minimi Abductor pollicis brevis Pisiform bone Tendon of extensor pollicis brevis Flexor digitorum superficialis Tendon of flexor carpi radialis Tendon sheath First dorsal interosseous Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Adductor pollicis Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis Lumbricals Opponens digiti minimi Flexor pollicis brevis Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Abductor pollicis brevis Abductor digiti minimi Opponens pollicis Flexor retinaculum (b) Palmar dissection, superficial Figure 10.32b Tendon of flexor pollicis longus Tendons of: Abductor pollicis longus Flexor carpi radialis Flexor pollicis longus Tendons of: Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Palmaris longus (a) Palmar aspect, superficial Figure 10.32a 10-24 Intrinsic Hand Muscles thenar group form thick, fleshy mass at base of thumb

adductor pollicis abductor pollicis brevis flexor pollicis brevis opponens pollicis Hypothenar group - fleshy base of the little finger Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. abductor digiti minimi flexor digiti minimi brevis opponens digiti minimi Tendon sheath First dorsal interosseous Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Adductor pollicis Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis Lumbricals Midpalmar group hollow of palm dorsal interosseous muscles (4) palmar interosseous muscles (3) lumbricals (4 muscles) Opponens digiti minimi Tendon of flexor pollicis longus

Flexor pollicis brevis Flexor digiti minimi brevis Abductor pollicis brevis Abductor digiti minimi Opponens pollicis Flexor retinaculum Tendons of: Abductor pollicis longus Flexor carpi radialis Flexor pollicis longus Tendons of: Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Palmaris longus (a) Palmar aspect, superficial Figure 10.32a 10-25

Recently Viewed Presentations

  •  We will begin with financial statements analysis  The

    We will begin with financial statements analysis The

    Let's get SBUX's latest annual financial statements. Type 10-K . Click on "Interactive Data" ...
  • PowerPoint-Präsentation - Ruhr University Bochum

    PowerPoint-Präsentation - Ruhr University Bochum

    Emphasis on the 3P0-model, which works well in many cases Prediction: pp Ds0(2317) + Ds with high rate Ds0-Factory ! * * Theory New developments (Brodsky) Duality between Conformal Field Theory and Anti-de Sitter Space (5 Dim.)
  • Methods for Improvement Where is the Will?

    Methods for Improvement Where is the Will?

    Adverse Event Rate WashYourHands Campaign MEWS incorporated into TPR chart through out trust General Ward - Success Increase in compliance with hand hygiene across the trust NHS! Improvement Mantra Will Ideas Execution …..then Scrutiny WILL The mental faculty by which...
  • lunar.earth.northwestern.edu

    lunar.earth.northwestern.edu

    The six Apollo landings which took place between 1969 and 1972 provided scientists with huge amounts of lunar data in the form of photography and orbital experiment results, sample collections and surface operations
  • Introduction to Astronomy

    Introduction to Astronomy

    But white dwarfs can't grow too massive Type I and II Supernovae (theory) Final days of a massive star Core of a supergiant (final stage) Nuclear binding energies Luminosity Luminosity = (constant) x (surface area) x (temperature)4 For a given...
  • redefining privileged access management - STALLION

    redefining privileged access management - STALLION

    The privileged access management system is in the early stage of productive operation - currently not all administrative traffic is controlled, but the finalgoal is to manage all superuser access at the organization. Management gradually limits direct access to the...
  • The Transition from the Classical period to the Hellenistic ...

    The Transition from the Classical period to the Hellenistic ...

    This transition between the classical and Hellenistic period caused the narratives told through the artwork to express scenes that depicted action and that dealt with pain and suffering. The classical period of course had events that dealt with this, but...
  • How to Use This Presentation  To View the

    How to Use This Presentation To View the

    Separate your list into elements, compounds, and mixtures. Chapter 12 Objectives Describe the general properties of gases. Define pressure, give the SI unit for pressure, and convert between standard pressure units. Relate the kinetic-molecular theory to the properties of an...