Music of the Classical Period

Music of the Classical Period

Music of the Classical Period 1750 1825 A new style in architecture, literature, and the arts developed. Sought to emulate the ideals of Classical Antiquity, especially Classical Greece Called Classicism Style reflected simplicity, clarity and symmetry.

Important people and events of the classical era include: 1732 The birth of George Washington 1752 Benjamin Franklin proves that lightning is electricity 1760 George III crowned king of England 1770 James Cook discovered east coast of Australia These people contributed to how the

Inventions of the classical Era 1760 - Industrial Revolution begins 1763 - Watts invents the first steam powered engine 1769 - Watt's steam engine patented 1771 - First edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica 1775 - Electric battery invented by Volta 1788 - Steamboat invented by John Fitch 1796 - First vaccination Characteristics of classical music 1. Less complicated texture than Baroque (more homophonic).

2. Emphasis on beauty, elegance and balance. 3. More variety and contrast within a piece than Baroque (dynamics, instruments, pitch, tempo, key, mood and timbre). 4. Melodies tend to be shorter than those in baroque, with clear-cut phrases, and clearly marked cadences. 5. The orchestra increases in size and range. The harpsichord fails out of use. The woodwind becomes a self-contained section. 6. The piano takes over as main keyboard instrument. 7. Importance was given to instrumental music - sonata, trio, string quartet, symphony, concerto. 8. Sonata form was the most important design.

God has blessed me with a cheerful heart so he will forgive me for serving him Cheerfully. Composers of the Classical Period Franz Joseph Haydn (1732 1809) Austrian composer (Viennese School) Often referred to as Papa Haydn for: 1. The development of Symphonies 2. The transformation of String Quartets 3. His influence on Mozart and Beethoven Composed:

Over 100 Symphonies 6 Paris Nos. 82-87; 12 London Nos. 93-104 Concertos, Sonatas, & Chamber Music 68 String Quartets, piano trios and divertimenti Sacred & Secular Vocal Music 14 Masses, Oratorios (The Creation & The Seasons), Folk Songs, etc. Listening: Surprise Symphony no. 94, Mvt 2 Emperor Quartet Opus 76 No. 3 Mvt

2 Trumpet Concerto Haydn worked for the Grand Duke Esterhazy for most of his career. His duties included taking care of the instruments and teaching others how to play. He was unable to publish while in their employ. He was happy in his roll as a servant. Moved to London late in his life and enjoyed great commercial success. Was a sought after teacher, he taught both Mozart and Beethoven. Did more than any other composer to develop the early symphony form and string quartets. "His

Highness expects Mr Haydn to behave as an honorable officer of a princely establishment To wit: to be always sober, to behave not rudely but politely and with consideration towards the musicians under his direction, and to be modest, quiet and honest in his conduct. Whenever there is music for Hi Highness, Mr. Haydn will be responsible not only for his own but for his musicians' becoming appearance in proper livery, according to instructions, with white stockings, white linen, well powdered, and either with pigtails or with hair-bags, but all in the same attire. Mr. Haydn will write at the order of his Highness such music as may be commanded .

Mr. Haydn will appear every day, both in the morning and the afternoon, in the ante chamber, to receive his orders for the day regarding the music and having done so, he will communicate them to his musicians and make sure that they arrive punctually according to order Quartet No. 62 in C major, Op. 76, No. 3, Movement 2 Emperor Quartet Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (Haydn) God save Francis the Emperor, our good Emperor Francis!

Long live Francis the Emperor in the brightest splendor of bliss! May laurel branches bloom for him, wherever he goes, as a wreath of honor. God save Francis the Emperor, our good Emperor Francis! (This hymn became the basis for the Emperor string quartet and the current German national anthem) Composers of the Classical Period Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 1791) Austrian composer, master of all genres

Child prodigy, Musical Genius, and an Eccentric Traveled and performed throughout Europe, settled in Vienna. Eccentricity made life difficult Composed: Orchestral Music - 40 Symphonies Divertimentos, Serenades, Marches, Dances Concertos 27 for Piano, 5 for Violin, etc. Operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, The Magic Flute, etc. I get paid far too much for

what I do, and far too little for what I could do. Choral Music Masses, the Requiem K.626 Requiem was incomplete, finished by Franz Sssmayr Composers of the Classical Period Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 1827) German composer, transitional figure from the Classical to the Romantic Era Enigmatic composer in a changing world: Unlike Haydn and Mozart, financial support from

patrons became sporadic (unstable) Depended mainly on concerts and publications. Made his name as a piano player when he first moved to Vienna. Established himself as a composer later. Produced his most profound works after turning deaf Orchestral music: 9 Symphonies, Overtures, and Incidental Music Music is the mediator between the spiritual and the sensual life. Concertos:

5 for Piano, 1 for Violin, 1 triple concerto Composers of the Classical Period Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 1827) Chamber Music String Quartets, Sonatas, Serenades, etc. 32 Piano Sonatas Op.13 "Pathtique, Moonlight, etc. 1 Opera Fidelio

Choral Music & Songs Including: Missa Solemnis, song cycle, etc. Listening: Symphony No. 9 Choral Symphony No. 5 Piano Sonata Pathetique Moonlight Sonata Fur Elise cont.

Symphony #3 Eroica Was written while Beethoven was coming to terms with his hearing loss Heilgenstadt Testament-A will that Beethoven wrote to his brothers as a letter. It showed that he was depressed and contemplating suicide during this period. Eroica was originally dedicated to Napoleon Bonaparte. The dedication was changed after Napoleon declared himself Emperor. Important piece from Beethovens middle period. Traditional Sonata Allegro Form Exposition: Theme 1 (tonic) Theme 2 (new key)

Development: Themes are freely developed, modulates to dominant key Recapitulation: Theme 1 and Theme 2 return in home key followed by a coda(closing material) Symphony #5, C minor- four note theme sometimes called the knock of fate. One of the most recognizable melodies in all of classical music. Symphony #9, D minor- Choral Symphony First symphony to use a Chorus. The 9th symphony has become an international symbol for hope and freedom. Played to commemorate the fall of the Berlin wall, played by students in the Tiananmen Square protests. Movement scheme for a typical symphony

1. Fast (allegro) 2. Slow (largo, adagio) 3. Minuet (3/4 dance form) 4. Fast (allegro, presto)

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