Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules

Myers PSYCHOLOGY Seventh Edition in Modules

Chapter 11 The Developing Person Developmental Psychology Womb to Tomb Psychology The Life Span Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology: A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the

life span Research focuses around three major issues: 1.Nature vs. Nurture 2.Continuity vs. Stages 3.Stability vs. Change Developmental Research Methods Cross-sectional study: a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another Longitudinal study: research in which the same people are restudied and retested

over a long period The Major Stages of Life

Conception Pre-natal: conception- 36/40 weeks Infancy 0-2 Childhood pre-school 2-5 school child 5-12 Adolescence 13-17/19 Adult

young 20-30s middle 40-50s old 60-0ver Death Basic Processes of Development Basic Processes of Development Maturation

in the study of development, maturation is the most important factor to consider maturation is a progressive unfolding by schedule you will begin to walk at a certain age range, begin to talk at another age range, etc. biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience Infant Gross Motor Milestones Motor Development: progression of muscular coordination required for physical

activities Physical Skill Set: cephalocaudal trend: head-to-foot direction of motor development Proximodistal trend: center-outward direction of motor development -Lift head: 1 month -Hold head up when in sitting position: 4 months -Control head & neck: 6 months -Roll over: 6 months -Sit up unsupported: slightly after 6 mths -Crawl: by one year old

-Walk: 90% by 15 mths Developmental norms: typical (median) age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities THE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Prenatal Period and the Newborn Zygote (Stage 1)

the fertilized egg (one celled organism- sperm/egg) enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division less than half survive pass 2 weeks develops into an embryo Embryo (Stage 2) Embryonic process begins with the forming of the placenta the developing human organism from 2 weeks through 2nd month

Fetus (Stage 3) the developing human organism from 2 months (9 weeks) after conception to birth Prenatal Development and the Newborn Teratogens agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm EX. Smoking causes underweight births Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant womans heavy drinking symptoms include misproportioned head A heroin addicted mother will give birth to a heroin addicted baby Prenatal Development and the Newborn Film: Fertilization http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-fertilization_10354435.bc

Prenatal Development and the Newborn 40 days 45 days 2 months 4 months 7 weeks -Hands and feet are emerging from developing arms and legs,

although heart began beating 2 weeks ago!!! -measures half an inch long, about the size of a blueberry. - eyelid folds partially covering her peepers -liver is churning out red blood cells until her bone marrow forms and takes over this role -Baby still considered an embryo- 8 weeks -Webbed fingers and toes are poking out from baby's hands and feet -his eyelids practically cover his eyes -breathing tubes extend from his throat to the branches of his developing lungs

-Size of a kidney bean - Begins moving this week if not last http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-1-to-9_10302602.bc Four months old- 16 weeks -Right now, he's about the size of an avocado: 4 1/2 inches long (head to rump) and 3 1/2 ounces. - His legs are much more developed, his head is more erect than it has been - His eyes have moved closer to the front of his head -His ears are close to their final position, too.

5 months- 20 weeks -Shes the length of a banana. -She swallowing more these days which is good practice for her digestive system. http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-15-to-20_10308111.bc 36 weeks -She now weighs almost 6 pounds (like a crenshaw melon) and is more than 18

1/2 inches long. -At the end of this week, the baby will be considered fullterm. (Full-term is 37 to 42 weeks Early experience and critical periods CRITICAL PERIOD: A period in a persons development in which a given event will have its greatest impact on the individual Shortly after birth: an optimal period when an

organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development. WHICH IS DIFFERENT FROM THE Social clock: The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement. Early Experience/Critical Periods Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz): a form of early learning that occurs in some animals during a critical period in their development and involves

the formation of attachment Early social deprivation: Harry Harlow Imprinting: Konrad Lorenz demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called a "critical period" of about 36

hours shortly after hatching. The Harlow Monkey Experiment WWII, Harlow served overseas Noticed orphanages filled with 1,000s babies Babies fed, clothed, changed Babies not held by nurses Rocking baby syndrome The Nature of Love

"Mother Love" and its consequences for social, sexual, and cognitive development. infant attachment and social bonding. Monkey love Harry Harlow's classic primate experiments suggest that to understand the human heart you must be willing to break it

"In Harlow's initial experiments infant monkeys were separated from their mothers at six to twelve hours after birth and were raised instead with substitute or 'surrogate' mothers

'surrogate' mothers made either of heavy wire or of wood covered with soft terry cloth. Harlow discovered that baby monkeys

deprived of their mothers (left) would transfer their affections to a cloth surrogate. Social Development Harlows Surrogate

Mother Experiments Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother (body contact), even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother as soon as the infants finished

nursing, they abandoned the wire monkey and clutched the cloth one. When the cloth model had the bottle, they didn't go to the wire model at all One control group of neonatal monkeys was raised on a single wire mother, and a

second control group was raised on a single cloth mother. no differences between two groups in amount of milk ingested or in weight gain. difference between the two groups lay in the composition of the feces, the softer stools of the wire-mother infants suggesting psychosomatic involvement. The wire mother biologically

adequate but psychologically inept. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2M6XBJEEFQ&feature=related Effects of the Wire Mom "...the actions of surrogate-raised monkeys became bizarre later in life. They engaged in stereotyped behavior

patterns such as clutching themselves and rocking constantly back and forth; they exhibited excessive and misdirected aggression..." Harlow found that young monkeys reared with live mothers and young peers easily learned to play and socialize with other young monkeys.

Those with cloth mothers were slower, but seemed to catch up socially by about a year. Babies raised with real mothers but no playmates were often fearful or inappropriately aggressive. Baby monkeys without playmates or real mothers became socially incompetent, and when older, were often unsuccessful at mating. Those unsocial females that did have babies were neglectful of them. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uRI8VKApgsU&feature=related 7 min 30 sec- til end

Natural Curiosity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRCPRz4Zq2o&feature=related Research Results Attachment Theory Attachment: powerful survival impulse that keeps infants close to their caregivers 2 major developers of attachment theory: Bowlby:

attachments between humans are adaptive over the course of human evolution Infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers a protective response from adult females. bond formed between the infant & primary caregiver is a general prototype for all subsequent love relationships parents provide a secure base from which child can adventure into the world & return knowing they will get safety & comfort Attachment Theory Ainsworth:

pioneered assessment & comprehension of individual differences in attachment The Strange Situation Experiment Infants are exposed to a series of eight separation and reunion episodes to assess the quality of their attachment Has to do with separation anxiety: emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment (peaks 14-18 mths) AINSWORTH'S STUDY OF THE TYPES OF ATTACHMENT

Aims: To do a study which investigated the security of a child's attachment with their caregivers. The study provided a number of episodes that provide various measures of the attachment relationship. Procedures: Children aged 12 - 18 months and their mothers were the participants. Observation was viewed through a one-way mirror. There were several episodes in the study, that included the following: - Caregiver and infant enter the room.

- Child plays with the toys while the mother is present. - A stranger enters the room and the caregiver leaves. - The stranger tries to comfort the child. - The caregiver returns and the stranger leaves. - The caregiver comforts the child and then leaves for a second time. - The child is left alone for 3 minutes. - The stranger enters and interacts with the child. - The caregiver enters, picks up the child and the stranger leaves.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5MudJ7yxkE&safe=active Findings: Three catagories of attachment were identified: SECURE - The baby considers the mother to be a safe base to explore from. The child showed distress when the mother left the room and seeked interaction with her as soon as she returned. 70% of the infants fell into this catagory. Greater curiosity, better peer relations, more self-reliant.NOT higher morality AVOIDANT (insecure)- The child paid little attention to the mother and was not distressed when she left the room. the child was easily comforted by the stranger. The mother was ignored

upon her return by the child. 15% of the infants fell into this category. RESISTANT (insecure)- The child showed simultaneous seeking and resistance to the mother. The child was very distressed when it was separated from the mother and was difficult to comfort upon her return. 15% of the infants fell into this category. Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment: Upset May happily greet but then turn away or approach without looking

Social Development: Child-Rearing Practices Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect obedience but offer little parental responsiveness Dont interrupt. Why? Because I said so. Permissive submit to childrens desires, make few demands, use little punishment Authoritative both demanding and responsive

set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open discussion Results: highest self-esteem, self-reliance, & social competence b/c granted more control Uninvolved cares for basic needs but shows little communication, few demands, & low responsiveness Results in little self-control; low self-esteem & competency Variations in Development Different children develop at different rates The same child will vary in rate of their

own development at different times in their life Understanding the variance and range of developmental rates is important to developmental psychologists Stage theories of development Do we develop in stages or not? Are we like oak trees or butterflies in our development? is our development continuous or discontinuous?

There are a number of various stage theorists in study of developmental psychology Stage Theories Piagets stage theory of cognitive development Piagets interest was in identifying particular eras (stages) of cognitive style (development) in humans

He distinguished 4 stages; they are: sensiomotor stage: 0-2 years preoperational stage: 3-6 years concrete operations stage: 7-11 years formal operations stage: 12+ years Piagets Stages of Cognitive

Development Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years

Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) Object permanence Stranger anxiety Grasping & sucking items (explore) About 2 to 6 years

Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Language development About 7 to 11 years Conservation

Concrete operational Mathematical Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies transformations and performing arithmetical operations About 12 through adulthood Formal operational Abstract reasoning

Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Infancy and Childhood: Piagets Cognitive Development Object Permanence the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Infancy and Childhood:

Piagets Cognitive Development Baby Mathematics Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer (Wynn, 1992) 4. Possible outcome: Screen drops, revealing one object. 1. Objects placed in case. 2. Screen comes 3. Object is removed.

up. 4. Impossible outcome: Screen drops, revealing two objects. Infancy and Childhood: Piagets Cognitive Development Conservation the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

Stage theories of moral development There are 2 theorists concerned with identification of stages of moral development in humans Kohlbergs theory of moral development Piagets Theory of moral development Theories of moral development concern how does one learn to do the right thing in society

Kohlbergs theory Kohlbergs theory of moral development includes 3 general phases (stages) of morality that persons can develop. They are: the premoral level of morality the conventional level of morality the postconventional level of morality Why do you do the right thing? Kohlbergs Moral Ladder

Postconventional level Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles Conventional level Morality of law and

social rules: to gain approval or avoid disapproval Preconventional level Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards As moral

development progresses, the focus of concern moves from the self to the wider social world. Jean Piaget theory of moral development

External motivation Morality of constraint Point of view: black and white Rules: sacred unalterable Punishment: harsh and

immediate; defines the act Intentionality: the outcome determines right or wrongness of act Authority: unilateral respect

Internal motivation Morality of cooperation Point of view: shades of grey Rules; made by people, broken or changed by people. Punishment: want less severe, more reciprocal Intentionality: the motivation behind the act determines it

regardless of outcome. Authority: value peers and adults equally Erik Eriksons Theory Eriksons stage theory of personality development there are eight (8) stages of development each stage has a crisis to be resolved that has a profound effect on how a persons personality will develop in the long term these stages start at birth and go to old age

Erik Eriksons Theory The 8 stages are: 1. basic trust vs mistrust: 0-1 year the world is a good place and I can trust people 2. autonomy vs shame/doubt: 1-3 years Im gonna stand up to the big people.did I go too far? 3. initiative vs guilt: 3-5 years I got a bright idea and Im gonna do it! 4. industry vs inferiority: 5-11 years

5. identity vs role confusion: 11-18 years 6. intimacy vs isolation: 18-40 years 7. generativity vs stagnation: 40-65 years 8. integrity vs despair: 65+ years Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age Stage

Description of Task Infancy (1st year) Trust vs. mistrust If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Toddler (2nd year)

Autonomy vs. shame Toddlers learn to exercise will and and doubt do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities. Preschooler (3-5 years) Initiative vs. guilt Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks

and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent. Elementary (6 yearspuberty) Competence vs. inferiority Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior.

Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development Approximate age Stage Description of Task Adolescence (teens into 20s)

Identity vs. role confusion Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. Young Adult (20s to early 40s)

Intimacy vs. isolation Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated. Middle Adult (40s to 60s) Generativity vs. stagnation

The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose. Late Adult (late 60s and up) Integrity vs. despair When reflecting on his or her life, the older

adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure. Development in Infancy and Childhood Development in infancy and childhood The neonatal period: the newborns first two (2) weeks The Neonate Cognitive development

neonates can imitate facial expressions fairly soon neonates have some memory for visual forms they prefer to look at contrasts they prefer order to disorder they prefer to look at patterns

they prefer to look at human faces Prenatal Development and the Newborn Rooting Reflex tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple when touched on the cheek Preferences human voices and faces facelike images-->

smell and sound of mother preferred The Newborn Greater stimulation with looking at a drawing of a face Habituation

Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation Habituate more quickly to a facelike image than to a solid disk The beginnings of cognition Prenatal Development and the Newborn Having habituated to the old stimulus,

newborns preferred gazing at a new one The Neonate Emotional and social development of the neonate five (5) emotional states can be distinguished in the neonate. These states are:

surprise happiness discomfort distress interest Infancy and Childhood:

Physical Development Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile--and can retain that learning for a month (RoveeCollier, 1989, 1997). Infancy and Childhood:

Piagets Cognitive Development Cognition all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schema a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information & experiences Infancy and Childhood: Piagets Cognitive Development Assimilation

interpreting ones new experience in terms of ones existing schemas Accommodation Adapting/adjusting ones current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information Infancy: 2 weeks to 2 years Emotional and social development in infancy infant develops a social smile at about 2 months of age develops separation anxiety at about 6-9

months of age develops stranger anxiety at about 6-10 months of age these anxieties peak around 14 months and gradually decline by about age 2 Early Childhood: 2 to 7 years Emotional and social development Emotional and social development: 2-7

years child progresses from solitary play to parallel play and finally to cooperative play child incorporates others into his/her pretending and games become more rulegoverned Middle Childhood: 7-11 years Emotional and social development peers become increasingly more important during this time

school becomes increasingly important childs early dependence on parents begins to lessen; parents may have some difficulty accepting this change Adolescence 12-13 through18-19 years of age Adolescence Adolescence the transition period from childhood to adulthood

extending from puberty to independence Puberty (girls: 11 years old; boy: avg. 13 years old) the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction Surge of physical growth Adolescence Primary Sex Characteristics body structures that make sexual reproduction possible ovaries--female

testes--male external genitalia Secondary Sex Characteristics nonreproductive sexual characteristics female--breast and hips male--voice quality and body hair Menarche 1st menstration (12-13) Spermarche 1st ejaculation (13-14) Adolescent Issues

Adulthood: Young adulthood through older adulthood Cognitive development

Cognitive abilities improve, change, or decline during adulthood Crystallized Intelligence: accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocabulary and analogies Fluid Intelligence: ability to reason speedily and abstractly, as when solving novel logic problems Crystallized intelligence improves over time while fluid intelligence slowly wanes Wisdom improves; wisdom is the appropriate use of knowledge

Emotional and social development Erickson: Early adulthood: Intimacy vs Isolation; Styles of Marriage STYLES OF MARRIAGE Conflict-Habituated: patterns of conflict creates excitement and drives marriage Passive-Congenial: means to an end,

background to true life forces Devitalized: social commitment, going through the motions Vital: romantic, closeness, separate ids Total: complete and total togetherness psychosomatic MIDDLE ADULTHOOD Middle adulthood: Ericksons Generativity vs stagnation; the challenge is to find meaning in our work and family lives and to

continue to be productive Mid-Life Issues MID-LIFE ISSUES Emotional and social development Climacteric: period beginning about age 45 when a loss of the capacity to sexually reproduce in women and a decline in the reproductivity capacity in men occurs Mid-life crisis: Empty nest, menopause

The Aged Adult OLD AGE/LATE ADULTHOOD Gerontology: the study of old age Later adulthood: Ericksons Integrity vs despair; the challenge is to see a life with meaning and continued satisfaction Causes of Aging Aging is partly a biological process but is a psychological process as well

Staying engaged in lifes activities and refusing to accept myths about aging are two keys to happy aging Aging as a biological process may be genetically solved toward the end of your lifetime Evaluation of stage theories of adulthood Psychologists disagree as to whether the changes in adulthood can be thought of as a series or stages or just a

continuation of a single process This is a continuity vs discontinuity debate that often occurs in developmental psychology What do you think? Death and dying: The final stage Death and dying According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, the stages in the acceptance of impending death are describes as the Grief Cycle:

denial anger bargaining depression acceptance

Types of Death Social death: loss of socialization and interaction with outside world Psychological death: loss of autonomy and decision making, confused or disoriented Biological death: actual physical death: problems with biological death: artificial means of sustaining life, technological advancements preventing natural death Death and Dying One step beyond?

what happens at the point of death? what happens after death? the near death experience and the commonalities in these reports rushing down a tunnel which, at the end, has an intensely brilliant light reports of seeing dead loved ones and experiences with angelic beings and/or God Practice Test 1. The stage of prenatal development during which the developing organism is most

vulnerable to injury is the: a. b. c. d. Zygotic stage Germinal stage Embryonic stage Fetal stage Practice Test

2. The cepgalocaudal trend in the motor development of children can be described simply as a : a. head-to-foot direction b. Center-outward direction c. Foot-to-head direction d. Body-appendages direction Practice Test 3. Developmental norms: a. Can be used to make extremely precise predictions about the age at which an individual child will reach

various developmental milestones b. Indicate the maximum age at which a child can reach a particular developmental milestone and still be considered normal c. Indicate the average age at which individuals reach various developmental milestones d. Involve both a and b Practice Test 4. When the development of the same subjects is studied over a period of time, the study is called a: a. cross-sectional study

b. Life history study c. Longitudinal study d. Sequential study Practice Test 5. The quality of infant-caregiver attachment depends: a. On the quality of bonding in the first few hours of life b. Exclusively on the infants temperament c. On the interaction between the infants temperament and the caregivers responsiveness

d. On how stranger anxiety is handled Practice Test 6. During the second year of life, toddlers begin to take some personal responsibility for feeding, dressing, and bathing themselves in an attempt to establish what Erikson calls a sense of: a. Superiority b. Industry c. Generativity d. Autonomy

Practice Test 7. Five-year-old David watches as you pour water from a short, wide glass into a tall, narrow one. He says there is now more water than before. This response demonstrates that: a. David understands the concept of conversation b. David does not understand the concept of conversation c. Davids cognitive development is behind for his age d. Both b and c are the case Practice Test

8. Which of the following is not one of the criticisms of Piagets theory of cognitive development? a. Piaget may have underestimated the cognitive skills of children in some areas b. Piaget may have underestimated the influence of environmental factors on cognitive development c. The mixing of stages raises questions about the value of organizing development in stages d. Evidence for the theory is based on childrens answers to questions Practice Test

9. If a childs primary reason for not drawing pictures on the living room wall with crayons is to avoid the punishment that would inevitably follow this behavior, she would be said to be at which level of more development? a. Conventional b. Postconventional c. Preconventional d. Unconventional Practice Test 10. The portion of the brain that appears to be the

last areas to mature fully is the: a. Hypothalamus b. Corpus callosum c. Prefrontal cortex d. Occipital lobe Practice Test 11. Girls who mature ________ and boys who mature________ seem to experience more subjective distress and emotional difficulties with the transition to adolescence. a. Early; early

b. Early; late c. Late; early d. Late; late Practice Test 12. Sixteen-year-old Foster wants to spend a few years experimenting with different lifestyles and careers before he settles on who and what he wants to be. Fosters behavior illustrates the identity status of: a. Identity moratorium b. Identity foreclosure

c. Identity achievement d. Identity diffusion Practice Test 13. Which of the following does not decline with age? a. Speed of information processing b. Memory c. Crystallized intelligence d. Fluid intelligence 1. Fertilization of an ovum outside a woman's body is called

a. artificial insemination. b. invitro fertilization. c. eugenics. d. genetic engineering. 2. When a gene is __________, the trait it controls will be present every time the gene is present. a. recessive b. dominant c. polygenic d. sex-linked 3. Which represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of intellectual

development? a. sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operational, post operational b. Pre operational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor c. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational d. preoperational, informal operational, formal operational, post operational 4. The grasping, rooting, and sucking reflexes of infants are best described as a.fixed action patterns.

b. instincts. c. conditioned reflexes. d. adaptive reflexes. 5. According to Chomsky, humans have a __________ to develop language. a. perceptual set b. telegraphic readiness c. learning set d. biological predisposition 6. Harlow's finding that baby monkeys prefer a terrycloth surrogate mother to a wire mother demonstrates the

importance of a. imprinting or critical periods. b. contact comfort. c. acceptance. d. good nutrition 7. Object permanence is to sensorimotor stage as conservation and reversibility are to a. formal operational stage. b. preoperational stage. c. informal operational stage. d. concrete operational stage.

8. The rapid and early learning of permanent behavior patterns during critical periods of development in birds and other animals is called a. separation anxiety. b. learned referencing. c. imprinting. d. social referencing. 9. The rapid and early learning of permanent behavior patterns during critical periods of development in birds and other animals is called a. separation anxiety.

b. learned referencing. c. imprinting. d. social referencing. 10. According to Erikson, failure to resolve the tasks of middle adulthood leads to a sense of __________ involving a concern for one's own needs and comforts only. a. apathy b. self-absorption c. despair d. stagnation 11. Teachers, peers, and adults outside the home become

important in shaping attitudes toward oneself in Erikson's stage of a. trust versus mistrust. b. initiative versus guilt. c. industry versus inferiority. d. integrity versus despair. 12. In the __________ level of moral development, moral choices are determined by the direct consequences of actions. a. preconventional b. conventional c. concrete

d. postconventional 13. With aging there is a decline of __________ intelligence, but not of __________ intelligence. a. fluid; fixed b. fixed; fluid c. fluid; crystallized d. crystallized; fluid 14. Behavior directed by self-accepted moral principles represents the __________ level of moral development. a. preconventional b. postconventional

c. unconventional d. conventional 15. The onset of puberty for boys is between __________ years; for girls it is between __________ years of age. a. 9-13; 10-12 b. 13-16; 11-14 c. 8-11; 9-13 d. 11-14; 13-16

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