Narrative Intervention 2.0 Updates for Early Intervention Sue Grogan-Johnson, Ph.D., CCC/SLP [email protected] Click icon to add picture Financial Disclosure: I received a complimentary conference registration for this presentation Non-Financial Disclosure: None AGENDA Brief Review
How do you provide narrative intervention? Whats new? Narrative intervention with special populations Resources& Tips REVIEW: OUTLINE FOR TEACHING NARRATIVES Teach Scripts Teach Personal Narratives Teach Story Retell &
Generation REVIEW: TEACHING SCRIPTS Stories http://pbskids.org/sesame/games/elmo-goes -doctor / Act out scripts Talk about scripts www.thelisteningroom.com Older vs. newer experiences Adding complexity Collecting data Extension to emergent literacy simple
complex REVIEW: TEACHING PERSONAL NARRATIVES Beginning-Most Interesting Part-Ending Components of personal narrative Model personal narrative Visual support (puzzle) How to collect data Classroom/Generalization Extension to emergent literacy activities Most Interesting Part
Beginning Get Attention One day Do you know Guess what happened Ending One Main Idea When Funny Scary Who
Feeling Ask a question Let listener know you are done REVIEW: TEACHING PERSONAL NARRATIVES Using Story Grammar Elements Components of personal narrative Character-Problem-Feeling-Action(Attempt)-Resolution Model personal narrative Visual supports SLP CONSIDERATIONS FOR ASSESSING AND
SCORING PERSONAL NARRATIVES ( Bliss, L., & McCabe, A., (2012). Personal narratives: Assessment and intervention. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 19(4), 130-138. Topic Maintenance Completeness/Informativeness Event Sequencing Referencing Rubric for Scoring Personal Narratives Adapted from Bliss, L., & McCabe, A., (2012). Personal narratives: Assessment and intervention . Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 19(4), 130-138. Student: Date: TOPIC MAINTENANCE (student includes only relevant, nontangential narrative related information)
COMPLETENESS/INFORMATIVENESS Includes essential facts Partial (Give Examples) Partial (Give Examples) YES NO Includes optional details for elaboration YES NO
N/A Includes description YES NO N/A Includes personal evaluation (he should not have
done that he was a bad dog I like to fish) YES NO EVENT SEQUENCING (Student tells story in chronological or logical sequence) YES NO REFERENCING Provides identification of individuals
Partial (Give Examples) PARTIAL (Give Examples) YES NO Provides identification of locations YES NO
Provides identification of events YES NO Uses pronouns with correct referents YES NO
NO Uses a clear beginning (i.e. Guess what? Do you know) YES NO Uses a clear ending (i.e. I liked our vacation)
YES NO Signal a change in discourse (i.e. I wanna tell you something. I dont know about cats but my dog..) YES NO N/A
YES NO PARTIAL(Give Examples) N/A POSSIBLE THERAPY TARGETS (Describe the area(s) to focus on during intervention Topic Maintenance: Completeness: Sequence: Reference: Cohesion: Fluency
NO FLUENCY (Story is easy to follow. Student does not evidence multiple language related false starts, corrections, repetitions, fillers and other mazing behaviors ) Conjunctive cohesion YES Fluency: Sue Grogan-Johnson, 2015 OSSPEAC Conference
SLP: REVIEW: NARRATIVE INTERVENTION Story Retell & Generation (Prek- 3 rd grade) Whole-Part-Whole Whole Story grammar Pre-story instruction Scaffolded comprehension questions Part Specific skill drill Whole
Incorporating learned skills Retell/Parallel story ROOM ON THE BROOM EXAMPLE Whole (repeated re-reading) Pre-story instruction Reading and retell with story grammar markers Scaffolded comprehension questions Part (story grammar can always be a part activity) http://www.roomonthebroomlive.co.uk/FUN/Activities/c42/p76 Regular & Irregular past tense verbs Nouns, Verbs, Describing words Conjunction and Tier 2 Vocabulary words (grinned, fluttered, terrible, wailed) Phonemic awareness Social Skills- friends help each other
Whole https://www.youtube.com/user/roomonthebroomfilm/featured REVIEW: NARRATIVE INTERVENTION Story Retell & Generation ( PreK grade 3) Book Selection Electronic Resources Ipad interactive stories http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sPhJH4qtGq8 Web sites www.storylineonline.net http://www.wegivebooks.org/ REVIEW: NARRATIVE INTERVENTION
Transition to Story Generation (Prek- 3rd grade) Scaffolding transition iPad apps https://itunes.apple.com/hk/app/my-scene/id4218380 43?mt=8 http://www.topappreviews101.com/my-scene-ipad-ap p-9509.html https:// itunes.apple.com/us/app/toontastic/id404693282?mt= 8 HOW DO YOU PROVIDE NARRATIVE INTERVENTION?
DEBRIEF WHATS NEW Narrative Research with Children with LI (1) Narrative Impairment Persists How we assess narrative production and comprehension matters Research on Early Narrative Development (1) Opportunities for children to recount events is important to narrative development Parental style of interaction predicts narrative performance Storybook reading supports the development of narrative structure Previewing the story & making predictions Discussing ideas related to the story as they arise during reading
Follow-up activities such as retelling, reenactments and reconstructing the story with pictures Narrative assessment and intervention must be considered with young children RESEARCH ON NARRATIVE ASSESSMENT (1) Student performance on narrative tasks are influenced by the types of tasks used to assess narrative production and comprehension Spinillo & Pinto (1994) 4,6 &8 year old TD English and Italian speaking children 4 different story elicitation conditions: tell a story from a picture the child drew, tell a story from 3 sequenced picture cards, tell a story with no visual supports, and tell a story that the examiner would write down and would be read to another student later Stories told without picture cues included greater narrative structure Picture supported narratives had more context-dependent utterances (this one, that thing)
RESEARCH ON NARRATIVE ASSESSMENT (4) Schneider (1996) Studied story construction and retell with 5 & 9 year old students with LI in 4 conditions: oral (story told with no pictures), oral and pictures were provided for retelling, oral with pictures for telling and retelling, and pictures only (child told the story using pictures with no oral version) Children used most narrative elements when retelling in the oral only condition. Used the least narrative elements and more extraneous information in the pictures only condition. Oral only vs. oral with pictures- mixed result: some significant differences with oral being better and a general statistical pattern favoring oral only. Hypothesized that the use of pictures seemed to distract the students and did not result in reducing the memory load Suggested assessment using oral only and picture only conditions to assess the childs ability to retell a story and childs ability to create a story. RESEARCH ON NARRATIVE ASSESSMENT (5)
Schneider & Dube (2005) TY K and Grade 2 students retold stories in 3 conditions: oral only, oral with pictures and picture only Both K and Grade 2 students performed worst in the picture only condition K students had most story grammar elements in oral + pictures condition Grade 2 students had more story grammar elements in both the oral only and the oral + pictures vs. picture only NSD for K students on oral only vs. picture only NSD for K students on oral only vs. oral + picture WHAT DOES THAT MEAN FOR US?(1) Compare Apples to Apples Story generation and story retelling from a wordless picture book are the assessment tasks that are most likely to provide a valid picture of the childs narrative skills Retelling is easier than generation. For Prek students retell is an appropriate
assessment task. Remove visual supports during childs narrative production. Facilitates more complex narrative structure- best performance for the child What Does That Mean For Us? http://www.languagedynamicsgroup.com/assessments.html PreK and School Age Narrative Criterion Referenced Assessment Tools PreK Benchmark and Progress Monitoring Test of Narrative Retell Test of Personal Story Generation Test of Story Comprehension Additional Characteristics of Story Retelling & Generation for Students with SLI and ASD (2)
Failure to plan(lack of organization) Hyper focus on details at the expense of the gist Inability to use information from multiple sources Difficulty allocating mental resources Difficulty answering inference ?s that require integration of information Is Narrative Intervention Effective and Evidence Based? (3) Majority of available research suggests intervention is effective for narrative macrostructure and microstructure CAUTION! CAUTION! CAUTION! Limited number of participants, limited experimental control, considerable variation in procedures and materials Impact of narrative intervention on academic skills is not widely investigated Emerging stage of evidence
NARRATIVE INTERVENTION WITH SPECIAL POPULATIONS AAC users, ELLs, Students with SSDs Encouraging Narrative Skills in Children who use AAC Limited research Single case studies and small group projects Soto(2006) single case study with 8 yo student with physical and speechlanguage impairments using a SGD. Baseline narrative consisted of single nouns, disorganized and heavily reliant upon listener Three phases
Story retelling using a story map Tell a personal narrative using Stories About Me (Richman, L. 1989) Fill in the blank scaffolds Generate a story by selecting cards for each of the primary story grammar elements Implemented by classroom teacher 3x week for 6 weeks 20-40 minutes per day Encouraging Narrative Skills in Children who use AAC Story Map Strategic Vocabulary Popup Encouraging Narrative Skills in Children who use AAC Results
In narratives Student began using complete sentences Student began marking tense Increased vocabulary In spontaneous conversation Student began to control conversation by selecting think (for I am thinking) and minute (for give me a minute) Soto, G. (2006). Supporting the development of narrative skills in children who use AAC. SIG 12 Perspectives on Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Vol. 15(2). 7-11. doi:10.1044/aac15.2.7 Intervention Research with Head Start Students (2) Oral narrative intervention may be a useful tool to select goals and for progress monitoring for young ELLs ELLs performance on oral narratives was not related to standard scores on PPVT or Woodcock Johnson Test
of Cognitive Abilities Narrative Skills of Children with SSDs, SSDs +LI, and TY students (6) Participants recruited before formal literacy instruction with age range of 3;3-6;6 Students with SSD >1.25 SD on GFTA-2 + 3 or more phonological error types + normal oral motor Students with SSD +LI met above criteria + scaled scores <8 on two subtests of the TOLD:P2 or CELF-P Measures Fictional story retell + 6 comprehension questions (3 detail + 3 inference) Follow up school age testing (ages 8-12) included: Word attack and word identification, reading comprehension and written language ability using subtests of standardized assessments Outcomes Children with SSDs were not different from TYD children on initial narrative assessment
Differences were noted in answering comprehension questions and story structure but not in ML of tunits, number of words or different words or amount of support from examiners Narrative Skills of Children with SSDs, SSDs +LI, and TY students (6) Predictive Ability School-age abilities in reading decoding of real words, reading comprehension and written expression were all predicted by the narrative macrostructure factor. Reading decoding of nonsense words was predicted by the narrative microstructure factor. Clinical Implications Young children can be taught the organizational elements of narratives Narrative assessment is useful with young children to ID children at risk for difficulty with future academic language skills Narratives may assist with generalization and should be incorporated into home programs
Resources & Tips Suggestions for Writing a Narrative Goal In what length of time + who + will do what (meaningful activity) +under what conditions + to what level or degree (mastery & number of times student must demonstrate) + how progress will be measured In one academic year, Timmy will retell and create stories that contain 6 main story grammar elements (e.g. setting, initiating event) with the support of a story grammar cue card with 90% accuracy in 3/5 observations. In one academic year, Timmy will tell personal narratives that contain an introduction, main point and conclusion during conversations with peers and adults with 90% accuracy in 4/5 observations. Suggestions for Writing a Narrative Goal Given an opportunity to tell a personal stories during natural conversation, ___ will generate a personal story that includes a problem, action and
consequence/ending on 3 consecutive daily opportunities, measured using a narrative scoring rubric. Given a model of a brief fictional story, _____ will retell the story using a complete episode (problem, action, consequence/ending), and at least 2 subordinate clauses on 3 consecutive daily opportunities, measured using a narrative scoring rubric. Gilliam, S., Jackson, C., & Peterson, D. (Nov. 2014). State of the art in narrative assessment and intervention. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Speech Language Hearing Association, Orlando, FL. Resources for Todays Presentation Pinterest https://www.pinterest.com/slgphd/ei-narratives/ Max and Ruby http://www.nickjr.com/max-and-ruby/ http://maxandruby.treehousetv.com/ (fun stuff)
References 1. Boudreau, D., (2008). Narrative abilities: Advances in research and implications for clinical practice. Topics in Language Disorders, 28(2), 99-114. 2. Gillam, S., Jackson, C., & Peterson, D. (Nov. 2014). State of the art in narrative assessment and intervention. Paper presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Conference, Orlando, FL. 3. Petersen, D. (2011). A systematic review of narrative-based language intervention with children who have language impairment. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 32(4), 207-220.
4. Schneider, P. (1996). Effects of pictures versus orally presented stories on story retellings by children with language impairment. AJSLP, 5, 86-96. 5. Schneider, P., & Dube, R. (2005). Story presentation effects o childrens retell content. AJSLP, 14, 52-60. 6. Wellman, R., Lewis, B., Freebairn, L., Avrich, A., Hansen, A., & Stein, C. (2011). Narrative ability of children with speech sound disorders and the prediction of later literacy skills. LSHSS, 42, 561-579.
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