Nationalism Triumphs in Europe - Revere High School
Nationalism Triumphs in Europe Chapter 10 Nationalist Revolution-Introduction Enlightenment ideas + nationalism create revolution Nationalism1. The belief that peoples greatest loyalty
should not be to a king or empire but to a nation of people who share common culture and history. 2. Pride or feeling of superiority in ones country Revolution1. The overthrow of one government and its replacement with another 2. Many territories revolt against empires Nationalists
Along with different political groups Nationalism emerges in Europe. People wanted to create their own Nation State and separate from empire control. Nation states would include people that share the same culture, history, language and geographic space Most nationalists were from the liberal groups in Europe.
Europe faces Revolutions Nationalism will cause some countries to revolt and separate from empires and monarchies. Nationalism will cause other territories in Europe to unite into a new country. (Examples-Italy, Germany) So whats the point?
A: Nationalism helps shape the modern world by influencing revolutions and new countries. Section 1 Building a German Empire Unification of Germany
Germany was the last of the great European powers to achieve complete political unity. In 1815, 39 independent German states existed. By 1871, however, the German statesexcluding Austria and Switzerland had united into a single nation Unification of Germany
The Congress of Vienna had created the German Confederation in 1815 as a buffer against possible future French expansion. The German Confederation loosely tied together the numerous German states with a diet, or assembly, sitting at Frankfurt
Unification of Germany Confederation of German states. Territories are not yet combined into one united Germany.
Unification of Germany People looked to Prussia to help unite Germany. Wilhelm I came to power in Prussia Wilhelm I appointed Otto Von Bismarck as Prime Minister. Both leaders believed in a strong government and military to unite
German states under Prussian control. Otto Von Bismarck He became prime minister in 1862, then rose to Otto Von Bismarck. Bismarck was determined to unite Germany under Prussian rule and used a
policy of blood and iron to do so. Realpolitik- politics based on needs of the state. Unification of Germany 1871 William I became Kaiser or emperor of
German states Otto Von Bismarck Wilhelm I Unification of Germany Bismarck used wars to achieve
unification of Germany. Wars that helped to unite Germany 7 Weeks War -Prussia vs. Austria Franco Prussian War-Prussia vs. France War against Denmark Leaders in many German states urged William I of Prussia to take the title Kaiser (emporer).
German nationalists celebrated the beginning of the second Reich, the second German empire after the Holy Roman Empire.-Germany independent by 1871 Bismarck wrote a constitution and set up a two-house legislature. However, real power remained with the emperor and chancellor.
Skip Section 2 Section 3 Unifying Italy 1861 Unification of Italy Before the 1800s Italy was broken into small city states headed by monarchs
People spoke the same languages but had not been united since the Roman Empire Groups of people ( Giuseppe Mazzinis Young Italy Group)come together unite Italian states (nationalism) Unification would bring together cultural barriers, transportation barriers and language barriers.
Nationalism leads to a united Italy Nationalism leads to a united Italy: Desire for a politically united country caused Italians to overthrow Austrian rule. Nationalists look to Sardinia as a unifying force Fighting starts and many people
overthrow their rulers in city states and unite with Sardinia to become the nation of Italy. By 1861 Victor Emanuel II was crowned king of Italy Cavour Victor
Emanuel II Why do you think Italian unification was difficult? Section 4 Nationalism Threatens Old EmpiresAustrian and Ottoman Empires Nationalism in Austria-Hungary
Austrian empire contained more than 11 different national groups. Austrian Empire included much of Balkan region. Austrian Empire lacked national and cultural unity. Revolutionary movements started to spread in the Austrian Empire because the different Nationalist movements were influenced by Frances democratic
Revolution in 1848. Hapsburgs Decline The ruling family in Austria were the Hapsburgs. They were the oldest ruling family in Europe Austria started to industrialize and had many
social problemsovercrowded cities and unhappy people in poor working conditions __________________ groups were growing Revolution in Austrian Empire Different nationalist groups were fighting within Austrian
Empire for their own nationality's purpose. Example-Hungarian nationalists revolted from the Austrian Empire. The Austrian Empire crushed revolt but decided to make the Austrian Empire into Austria-Hungary_. Result-Austria-Hungary
established. Powder Keg in the Balkans Different slavic nationalist groups in the Balkans wanted political independence. Fighting among nationalist groups threatened the unity of Austria-Hungary and would end up being the spark that set off WWI.
See page 345 Result-the Austrian Empire becomes weak during the late 1800s. Ottoman Empire Collapses The ottoman Empire also collapsed during the 1800s. The Ottomans were forced to grant equal citizenship to all people under their rule by the
British and French. European countries did not like the idea of Muslims controlling Christian people in Europe. Ottomans slowly lost territory and by 1918 the empire was gone The Ottoman Empire became what is present day Turkey. Section 5
Reform and Reaction in Russia Nationalism in Russia 1800s Russian Empire stretched from Europe to the Pacific Ocean. Russian Empire included many nationalities and over 60 different languages Oppressive autocratic government (1 person ruler) Russia enacts reform in order to industrialize
(ends serfdom and this frees up workers for industry) Large working class grew unhappy with working and living conditions Growth of Radical movements to get rid of the old type of government under the czar. The people rebel against the Czars policy of Russification Russification Making the citizens Russian
through forced language, education and religion Result of Nationalism in Russia Separate groups have their own ideas of how Russia should be governed making up several different nationalist groups Many radical movements and attempts for revolt. Example-Poland
Russias government was filled with reaction and upheaval during the late 1800s into the 1900s. Nationalism in Russia One radical group that looked after the working class were the Bolsheviks. Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Lenin and his ideas were based on Karl Marx
teachings. ( this group would eventually overthrow the czar, lead the Russian Revolution, and establish communism in Russia.) Nationalis m Divide
Italy Germany City state of Sardinia led unification LeadersLeaders-
Spanish French Portugues e British Empires Nation
States Formed Austrian Empire Ottoman Empire Nation
States Formed Russian Empire Nation States Formed
Nation States Formed Empires Ottoman http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/Ottoman_m ap.jpg
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