Natural history and exploration in Taiwan 臺灣的自然與探索拓殖史

Natural history and exploration in Taiwan 臺灣的自然與探索拓殖史

Introduction to the biodiversity of Taiwan Natural history and exploration in Taiwan Jer-Ming Hu [email protected] [email protected] Institute Institute of of Ecology Ecology and and Evolutionary Evolutionary Biology, Biology, NTU NTU

CC 3.0 Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) NASA World Wind Version 1.3.5 The geography Land area: 13900 mi2. (36000 m2) Highest point: 12966 ft (3952 m) Mean ann rainfall: 2483 mm Average ann temp.: 73F (23C)

NASA World Wind JAVA SDK Paleogeography of the East Asia Formation of lands of Taiwan The latest connection between Taiwan and other area 0.2-0.4 mya? The glacial periods Gnz period: 1.50-1.37 mya Mindel period: 1.2-1.05 mya Wrm period: 40-32 mya Migration of animals and plants from adjacent regions China, Japan, the Philippines, etc. Highly influenced by migration/dispersal mechanisms CHINA

Common plant species between Taiwan and adjacent regions 2374 spp. (58.2% ) TAIWAN JAPAN 1701 spp. (41.7% ) Endemic to Taiwan:

1069 (26.2%) 1205 spp. (29.6% ) PHILIPPI NES National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from T.C. Huang et al. 2003. Flora of Taiwan, 2 nd edn., Vol. 6. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan. Geology in Taiwan National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. Climate in Taiwan Tropics

Subtropics Ann. Temp. NASA World Wind JAVA SDK Data from Central Weather Bureau Ann. Rain. Tan-sui 22.2C 2155 mm Chujihu

18.6C 4389 mm Su-ao 22.6C 4440 mm Hsinchu 22.6C 1718 mm Alisan

11.2C 3932 mm Yu-san 4.2C 3071 mm Chiayi 23.1C 1774 mm Kaohsiung

25.1C 1885 mm Henchun 25.1C 2022 mm Lanyu 22.7C 2980 mm Average Temperature and Rainfall from

1981 to 2010 Temperature Rainfall NASA World Wind JAVA SDK National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from Central Weather Bureau. Temperature Rainfall NASA World Wind JAVA SDK National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from Central Weather Bureau. Natural survey in Taiwan Colonization of Taiwan 1621

Before Dutch Dutch colonization 1661 1683 Ming (Chen) Ching 1895 Japanese colonization 1945 Current Pres. National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 1959.

1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Early settlement Westerner Japanese Current Natural survey in Taiwan National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 2010.

. . 1997. . 1999. . Early days (1624 1662) 1602 ( 30 )Ti-Chen ( ) Cutivated species of Rice Rice (( )) sesame sesame (( )) green green onion onion (( )) ginger ginger ((

)) sweet sweet potato potato (( )) sugarcane sugarcane (( )) coconut coconut (( )) Westerners: before 1895 1800 1850

1900 1950 2000 A. Adams (1820-1878, England; insects & bivalves) Robert Fortune (1812-1880, England; plants in NT) Charles Wilford (-1893, England; plants) Robert Swinhoe (1836-1877, England; various) G. L. Mackay (1844-1901, England; various) Richard Oldham (England; plants) La Touche, J. D. D. (1861-1935, England; animals) Natural survey before 1950 Life span Collecting period in Taiwan

National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 1999. . Robert Fortune (horticulturist from Scotland) Robert Fortune took the boat Confucius from Fuchou ( ) to Tamshuy ( ) at April 20, 1854 for a day. Making note of lily, rice paper plant (Tetrapanax papyrifera ). Lilium formosanum Flickr plj.johnny The Tea Thief Tetrapanax papyrifera

Info: http://www.imdb.com/title/ tt0458235/ Image http://www.roninfilms.com.au/ : image-viewer.html?photo=/images/ large/466.jpg Flickr Bettaman Robert Swinhoe (England, 1836-1877) Robert Swinhoe worked as a consul in Taiwan and has great collections in 1856-1866. He cataloged and named at least 227 new birds and 17 mammals, and many plants too.

Robert Swinhoe ca. 1863 Map of Taiwan in 1864 Swinhoe took British boat Inflexible circling the island of Taiwan and wanted to land Ching-shui, Hualien in 1858. Takao in 1871. Phoenix hanceana ( ) can be seen on the seashore Exploring lagoons near Kaohsiung by Swinhoe. Noted contribution by R. Swinhoe Animals named by R. Swinhoe Porcula Porcula taivana

taivana (Formosan (Formosan wild boar ) Macaca Macaca cyclopis cyclopis (Taiwan (Taiwan rock rock macaque macaque )) Paguma Paguma larvata larvata taivana taivana (Taiwan (Taiwan gem-faced gem-faced civet civet

) Neofelis Neofelis nebulosa brachyurus (Formosan (Formosan cloud cloud leopard leopard ) Helictis Helictis subaurantiaca subaurantiaca (Tree civet ) Talpa Talpa insularis insularis (Formosan blind mole ) Formosan cloud leopard

Flickr icools Noted contribution by Swinhoe Found or named after Swinhoe Lophura Lophura swinhoii swinhoii (Swinhoe pheasant )) Japalura Japalura swinhonis swinhonis (Swinhoes (Swinhoes tree tree lizard lizard ) Rubus

Rubus swinhoei swinhoei Hance Hance (Swinhoe (Swinhoe rubus rubus ) Sabia )) Sabia swinhoei swinhoei Hemsl Hemsl (Swinhoes (Swinhoes sabiaSwinhoe Pheasant Swinhoes tree lizard Wiki J. Patrick Fischer

Sabia swinhoei Hemsl National Taiwan University JerMing Hu Richard Oldham (Royal Gardens, Kew) Richard Oldham visited Tan-sui and Keelung, March-April, 1864, and collected over 600 species of plants. Now the specimens are deposited in Kew Garden, London Oldham discovered 61 new plant species, e.g. Saurauja oldhamii Hemsl. ( ) Michelia compressa (Maxim.) Sargent ( ) Liquidambar formosana Hance ( ) Rhododendron oldhamii Maxim. ( )

Chloranthus oldhamii Solms ( ) Diospyros oldhamii Maxim. ( ) Rhododendron oldhamii Picasa Picasa Chloranthus oldhamii Solms National Taiwan University JerMing Hu National Taiwan University Jer- Liquidambar formosana Hance

First collected by Oldham in Tansui National Taiwan University JerMing Hu Jstor Plant Augustine Henry (Irish, doctor) Augustine Henry stayed in Taiwan from 1892- 1895, mostly in Takao (Kaohsiung), Bankinsing (Wanchin ), and South Cape ( ) A. Henry (left) and H. Elwes Wiki Chan-Pan Liao

Catholic church of Wanchin (now) Augustine Henry A. Henr collected more than 16000 plant specimens in southern China and Taiwan during 1881-1889, and published more than 1000 new species. Henry published A List of Plants from Formosa in 1896, including 1288 species. This is the major contribution to the flora of Taiwan. There are 103 endemic species, all collected from mountain area. Most of them are common to southern China and Japan. Less connected to the Philippines and Australia.

1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Tsunasuke Tada Yoneraro Kikuchi Masamitsu Oshima Yasusada Tashiro

Bunzo Hayata Takiya Kawakami Yaichi Shimada Sasaki Syuniti Ryoso Kanehira Kano Tadao Botanic studies before 1950 Life span Period in Taiwan National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 1997. .

Yoshimatsu Yamamoto Yushun Kudo Genkei Masamune Yoneraro Kikuchi is the first person who collected the whole specimen of Mikado pheasant ( ) Wiki Snowyowls (photographer) / Jako (uploader) The type specimen of the pheasant comprises two tail feathers on the head-dress of an aboriginal people, collected in 1906 by Walter Goodfellow Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus

) was found by Masamitsu Oshima in 1935. Oncorhynchus masou masou Wiki Colinwen.tw 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Tsunasuke Tada

Yoneraro Kikuchi Masamitsu Oshima Yasusada Tashiro Bunzo Hayata Takiya Kawakami Yaichi Shimada Sasaki Syuniti Ryoso Kanehira Kano Tadao

Natural survey studies 1895-1950 Life span Studying period in Taiwan National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 1997. . Yushun Kudo Yoshimatsu Yamamoto Genkei Masamune Natural survey in Taiwan Japanese naturalists (1895-1945)

1932. Transactions of the natural history society of Formosa, Vol. 22: No. 123. Syuniti Sasaki Yushun Kudo Ryoso Kanehira 1948. Taiwania, Vol. 1: No. 1. Bunzo Hayata Takiya Kawakami (1871-1915)

Director of the National Taiwan Museum from 1910-1915 In charge of collection over the whole island of Taiwan Takiya Kawakami 1925. Transactions of the natural history Plant named after Kawakami National Taiwan University JerMing Hu Excoecaria kawakamii Hayata ( , Euphorbiaceae)

National Taiwan University JerMing Hu Bunzo Hayata ( 1874-1934) 1906 published Enumeratio Plantarum Formosanarum (with ) 1908 published Flora Montana Formosae 1911 published Icones Plantarum Formosanarum Recorded 170 families, 1197 genera, and 3568 species Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata Flickr plj.johnny Yushun Kudo (1887-1932)

Director of the herbarium at Taihoku Imperial University at 1929 1932. Transactions of the natural history society of Formosa, Vol. 22: No. 123. Yushun Kudo NTU at 1931 National Taiwan University Library Database of Taiwanese Old NTU herbarium (TAI)

National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Ryoso Kanehira (1882-1948) Ryoso Kanehira National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. National Taiwan University Library Database of Taiwanese Old Plant named after Kanehira Mitrastema yamamotoi var. kanehirai ( , Mitrastemonaceae)

National Taiwan University JerMing Hu Syuniti Sasaki (1888-1961) Published List of Plants of Formosa in 1928, including plants of: 185 families 1121 genera 3265 species Syuniti Sasaki Plant named by Sasaki Astragalus nankotaizanensis Sasaki ( , Fabaceae)

National Taiwan University JerMing Hu Yoshimatsu Yamamoto (18931947) 1928 Assistant Professor, Taihoku Imp. Univ. 1933-34 Studied in the US and UK 1934 Published Supplementa Iconum Plantarum Formosanarum 1948. Taiwania, Vol. 1: No. 1. National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. Epilobium nankotaizanense

Yamamoto Flickr ECOgarden National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. Genkei Masamune ( 1899-1993) 1936 published An enumeration of higher cryptogamic and phanerogamic plants hitherto known from the island of Formosa and its adjacent islands 1954 published Flora Kaianantensis Morning Star Publishing Inc. National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project.

Type specimen localities from records in TAI National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Flora of Taiwan ( ) Editorial committee of the first edition (1975-1979): De Vol ( ), Tang-shui Liu, H.L. Li ( ), Tetsuo Koyama ( ), T.C. Huang ( ) Editorial committee of the second edition (1994-2003): T.C. Huang ( ), W.C. Hsieh ( ), W.P. Yang ( ), C.F. Hsieh ( ), C.I Peng ( ), C.S. Kuo ( ), H.C. Su ( ) National Taiwan Universtiy Tseng-Chieng Huang National Taiwan Universtiy Tseng-Chieng Huang

Copyright Declaration Work Licensing Author/Source NASA World Wind Version 1.3.5 http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/nasa-exp/World_Wind_1.3.5_Full.exe?download 2011/10/3 visited Note: The original work is from World Wind Java SDK: http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov/java/ It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: NASA Web Privacy Policy and Photo Guidelines Wiki Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taiwan_NASA_Terra_MODIS_23791.jpg 2011/09/26 visited NASA World Wind JAVA SDK http://goworldwind.org/demos/ 2011/10/3 visited

Note: The original work is from World Wind Java SDK: http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov/java/ It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: NASA Web Privacy Policy and Photo Guidelines National Taiwan University Kuo-Yen Wei National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from T.C. Huang et al. 2003. Flora of Taiwan, 2 nd edn., Vol. 6. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan. National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/ebookimages/Flora%20of%20Taiwan/Flora%20of%20Taiwan(2nd)/Flora%201/pdf/Flora_2_I-0004 .pdf 2011/12/19 visited It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project copyright statement Work Licensing

Author/Source NASA World Wind JAVA SDK http://goworldwind.org/demos/ 2011/10/3 visited Note: The original work is from World Wind Java SDK: http://worldwind.arc.nasa.gov/java/ It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: NASA Web Privacy Policy and Photo Guidelines National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from Central Weather Bureau. National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from Central Weather Bureau. Wiki Johannes Vingboons http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Formosa_Map.jpg 2011/10/11 Wiki user: M2545 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SeaWitch_china.jpg 2011/10/20 visited Wiki user: Adam sk

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RobertFortune.gif 2011/10/11 visited Wiki Sasaki http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ :Bunz_Hayata.JPG 2011/10/21 visited Wiki user: Nyttend, Skier Dude. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_%26_Elwes.jpg 2011/10/25 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 1959. . Work Licensing Author/Source National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 2010. . . 1997. . 1999. .

J. van Braam http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/web-life/taiwan/9702/9702-01.htm 2011/10/21 visited Wiki user: Valrie75 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Swinhoe_Robert_1836-1877.png 2011/10/11 visited Robert Swinhoe 1864. Notes on the island of Formosa. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 34: p. 6. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1798463 National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Data from . 1999. . Flickr plj.johnny http://www.flickr.com/photos/plj/935899205/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 2011/10/11 visited Flickr Bettaman http://www.flickr.com/photos/bettaman/4570912951/sizes/o/in/set-72157623851206781/ 2011/10/11 visited

Robert Swinhoe 1864. Notes on the island of Formosa. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 34: p. 6. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1798463 2011/10/11 visited Frederick Le Breton Bedwell. 1902. On the east coast of Formosa - Attacked by savages. In William Blakeney, On the coasts of Cathay and Cipango forty years ago. London: Elliot Stock, 1902, p. 75. http://www.archive.org/stream/oncoastscathaya00blakgoog#page/n116/mode/2up 2011/10/11 visited Work Licensing Author/Source Wellcome Images Photographed by John Thomson http://images.wellcome.ac.uk/indexplus/image/L0056431.html 2011/10/26 visited

Edmund Hornby Grimani 1890. Canoeing at Takow, Formosa. In Illustrated London News Vol. 96, No. 2651 (8 February 1890):181. http://academic.reed.edu/formosa/gallery/image_pages/LondonNews/ln96p181canoeing_S.html 2011/10/11 visited Flickr icools http://www.flickr.com/photos/icools/2698952823/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 2011/12/15 visited Wiki J. Patrick Fischer http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:A_lizard_in_Taiwan_2.JPG 2011/12/15 visited Alexander Francis Lydon http://www.takaoclub.com/swinhoe/ornithology.htm 2011/10/11 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Picasa https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=%E9%87%91%E6%AF%9B%E6%9D%9C%E9%B5%91&uname=112972057

494130280024&psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons#5268941561294222738 2011/12/15 visited Picasa https://picasaweb.google.com/lh/view?q=%E9%87%91%E6%AF%9B%E6%9D%9C%E9%B5%91&uname=112972057 494130280024&psc=G&filter=1&imglic=creative_commons#5458406827445511250 2011/12/15 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Work Licensing Author/Source National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Jstor Plant Science http://plants.jstor.org/specimen/bm000753002 2011/12/15 visited It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:

Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Jstor Terms and Conditions of Use National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Wiki user: Nyttend, Skier Dude. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_%26_Elwes.jpg 2011/10/25 visited Wiki Chan-Pan Liao http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Catholic_Church_of_Wanchin_front_external.JPG 2011/12/15 visited National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Wiki Snowyowls (photographer) / Jako (uploader) http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mikado_Pheasant_398.jpg 2011/12/15 visited Wiki Colinwen.tw http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fp00224.jpg 2011/12/15 visited

Wiki User: Vineyard http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yamame.jpg 2011/12/15 visited Work Licensin g Author/Source 1932. Transactions of the natural history society of Formosa, Vol. 22: No. 123. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Syuniti Sasaki 1938. Miscellaneous. The Journal of Japanese Botany, Vol. 14: No. 10, p. 692-704. National Taiwan University Library Database of Taiwanese Old photos

http://photo.lib.ntu.edu.tw/pic/db/detail.jsp?dtd_id=32&id=35331&86&pk=seq&showlevel=2 2011/10/27 visited Note1. Wiki Sasaki http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ :Bunz_Hayata.JPG 2011/10/21 visited 1948. Taiwania, Vol. 1: No. 1. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Takiya Kawakami 1910. A List of Plants of Formosa. 18717-1915 1910 50 1925. Transactions of the natural history society of Formosa, Vol. 15: No. 79, 80. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act. Note 1: National Taiwan University Library : http://photo.lib.ntu.edu.tw/pic/image_new/manual.htm

Work Licensing Author/Source National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Bunzo Hayata 1921. Icones Plantarum Formosanarum, Vol 10 Flickr plj.johnny http://www.flickr.com/photos/plj/3504564827/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 2011/10/21 visited Bunzo Hayata

1906. On Taiwania, a new genus of Coniferae from the island of Formosa. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany. 37: p. 330-331. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1906.tb00842.x/pdf 2011/10/27 visited Bunzo Hayata 1906. On Taiwania, a new genus of Coniferae from the island of Formosa. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany. 37: p. 330-331. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1906.tb00842.x/pdf 2011/10/27 visited Bunzo Hayata 1906. On Taiwania, a new genus of Coniferae from the island of Formosa. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany. 37: p. 330-331. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1906.tb00842.x/pdf 2011/10/27 visited National Taiwan University Library Database of Taiwanese Old photos http://photo.lib.ntu.edu.tw/pic/db/detail.jsp?dtd_id=32&id=29329&2&pk=seq&showlevel=2 2011/10/27 visited Note1.

Note 1: National Taiwan University Library : http://photo.lib.ntu.edu.tw/pic/image_new/manual.htm Work Licensing Author/Source National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/ebook/ebookpage.php?book=Tr.%20Taiwan&volume=0&page=i It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project copyright statement National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu Syuniti Sasaki ( )

1928. Lists of Plants of Formosa. National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/ebook.php?ebook=Suppl.%20Icon.%20Pl.%20Formos. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project copyright statement National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/ebook/ebookpage.php?volume=2&book=Suppl.%20Icon.%20Pl.%20Formos.&page=29 It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project copyright statement National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/ebook/ebookpage.php?book=Suppl.%20Icon.%20Pl.%20Formos.&volume=2&page=46 It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project copyright statement

Work Licensing Author/Source Flickr ECOgarden http://www.flickr.com/photos/ecogarden/25154186/sizes/l/in/photostream/ 2011/12/15 visited Yung-hua Wu. Portraits of the Forgotten Japanese-Taiwanese Botanists. Taichung City Morning Star Publishing Inc. . 1997. . .P435 This work is licensed by Morning Star Publishing Inc. for the use of The Biodiversity of Taiwan course ONLY. It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65 National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/ebook.php?ebook=Kudoa It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of: Taiwan Copyright Act Articles 52 & 65

National Taiwan University Herbarium Digital Archives Project copyright statement National Taiwan University Jer-Ming Hu National Taiwan Universtiy Tseng-Chieng Huang This work is licensed by Tseng-Chieng Huang for the use of The Biodiversity of Taiwan course ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned entity and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyright privileges have to be negotiated with the copyright owner(s) for separately National Taiwan Universtiy Tseng-Chieng Huang This work is licensed by Tseng-Chieng Huang for the use of The Biodiversity of Taiwan course ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned entity and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyright privileges have to be negotiated with the copyright owner(s) for separately Taiwan Forestry Research Institute This work is licensed by Taiwan Forestry Research Institute for the use of The Biodiversity of Taiwan course ONLY. The copyright belongs to the above mentioned entity and GET does not have the authorization right. Copyright privileges have to be negotiated with the copyright owner(s) for separately

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