NATURALISM Pascual San Juan San Miguel Silvestre Tamayo Tan Teodoro Valencia Yeung Reporting in ChE 525 March 5, 2016 introduction Reported by: San Miguel, John Andre N. Naturalistic view Thales
Confucius The Stoics Aristotle Epicurus St. Thomas Aquinas John Locke Willard Van Orman Quine Thales One of the seven sages of Greece
First philosopher in Greek tradition Interested in astronomical, physical, and meteorological phenomena His scientific investigations led him to speculate that all natural phenomena are different forms of one fundamental substance Reported by: Pascual, John Ryan L. Thales Four views according to thales 1. The earth rests on water.
2. Water is source of all things. 3. The magnet has a soul. 4. All things are full of gods. Reported by: Pascual, John Ryan L. Confucius Everything thrives according to nature Human behavior should avoid extremes and seek moderation when things
function in accordance with this principle of the Mean. Reported by: San Juan, Jamie Ashley E. Confucius Principle of Mean provides a standard measure for all things 'relationship of natural dependence', i.e. the principle requires reciprocal cooperation between people and between people and nature. measure of correct behavior correlates to naturalistic ethics. The "reciprocity between people
and nature" corresponds to modern concept of ecological awareness. Reported by: San Juan, Jamie Ashley E. Confucius Taoism the 'Way' or 'Tao', is basically the path taken by natural events. for people to live a life of simplicity, inner peace, humility and compassion, revering and learning from Nature.
Wu Wei non-action or effortless action to go with the flow and let things take their natural course. Reported by: San Juan, Jamie Ashley E. The stoics Reported by: Silvestre, Ces Angelin C. Aristotle Ethical Naturalism:
Moral judgments are really judgments of fact about the natural world Aristotle believed that good for us is defined by our natural objective. Reported by: Tamayo, Benedict Christian E. Aristotle Empirical scientific method - gaining knowledge based on observations of nature
perpetuation of species through personal and social group survival Worshipping Logos- knowing and revering the natural order Reported by: Tamayo, Benedict Christian E. Epicurus One of the major philosophers in the Hellenistic period Developed an unsparingly materialistic
metaphysics, empiricist epistemology, and hedonistic ethics. Reported by: Tan, Corina C. Epicurus Epicurus Ethics Starts from the Aristotelian commonplace that the highest good is what is valued for its own sake, and not for the sake of anything else. Happiness is the highest good; disagrees with Aristotle by
identifying happiness with pleasure. TWO REASONS: 1) Pleasure is the only thing that people do (value for its own sake) 2) One immediately perceives that pleasure is good and that pain is bad. Reported by: Tan, Corina C. Epicurus Types of Pleasure 2 Different Types of Pleasure: 1. Moving Pleasures
Occur when one is in the process of satisfying desire 2. Static Pleasures After ones desires have been satisfied, the state of satiety, of no longer being in need or want, is itself pleasurable.. Epicurus denies that there is any intermediate state between pleasure and pain. Reported by: Tan, Corina C. Epicurus Types of Desire Desire-satisfaction
If pleasure results from getting what you want Desire-frustration Pain from not getting what you want Three types of desires: 1. Natural and necessary desires 2. Natural but non-necessary desires 3. Vain and empty desires Reported by: Tan, Corina C. Epicurus The Virtues
Courage, moderation, and the other virtues are needed in order to attain happiness. Natural science and philosophy itself are instrumental goods (they are valuable solely for the sake of happiness that they can bring oneself, not for their own sake). Natural science is needed in order to give mechanistic explanations of natural phenomena and thus dispel the fear of the gods. Philosophy helps to show us the natural limits of our desires and to dispel the fear of death. Reported by: Tan, Corina C.
Epicurus Justice Justice is an agreement neither to harm nor be harmed, and we have a preconception of justice as what is useful in mutual associations. The main reason not to be unjust is that one will be punished if one gets caught, and that even if one does not get caught, the fear of being caught will still cause pain. Laws that are actually useful are just.
Reported by: Tan, Corina C. Epicurus Friendship Friendship dances around the world telling us we must wake to blessedness. Friends are able to provide one another the greatest security, whereas a life without friends is solitary and beset with perils. Death The fear of death is often based upon anxiety about having an unpleasant afterlife.
Reported by: Tan, Corina C. St. Thomas Aquinas Four types of laws for Aquinas 1. Eternal law laws of the universe 2. Divine law the revealed word of God (revelation); scriptures 3. Natural law laws we know by reason; mens rational capacity 4. Human law created by us for the purpose of implementing natural law
Reported by: Teodoro, Areeya Kyra D. St. Thomas Aquinas Precept of Natural Law That good is to be done and pursued, and evil is to be avoided Preserve life and ward off its obstacles Reproduce and raise your offspring Pursue knowledge and live together in society Reported by: Teodoro, Areeya Kyra D.
St. Thomas Aquinas Natural Law No slaying of the innocent The evil-doer should be punished Human Law Do not murder The punishment for a DUI is ten days in
jail Reported by: Teodoro, Areeya Kyra D. John locke recognized as an articulate advocate of natural rights
Locke's reaffirmation of Natural Rights is the foundation of liberty, democracy, and civil rights in the modern world derive from observing nature, discerning man's place in nature to define man's natural purpose, discerning how society serves this purpose, and then reasoning the most reciprocally beneficial functional relation between the individual and society.
Reported by: Valencia, Camille Ann C. John locke Four Cornerstone Principles Liberty Democracy
Civil Rights Private Property Reported by: Valencia, Camille Ann C. Willard Van Orman Quine
Reported by: Yeung. Angelyn C. conclusion The essential tenets of Naturalistic Ethics are found throughout all the major religious beliefs of the East and West, and in worldwide Natural Science. These being: 1) The world is an ordered continuum of cause and effect governed by natural laws. 2) Humans are an integral aspect of, and thus subject to, this natural order. 3) Valid human knowledge derives from the cognition, and
reasoned understanding, of the ordering principles of nature. 4) Ethical human behavior is guided by acting in accordance with our place in nature's order, our purpose. Thank you for listening!
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