NDW4MI - Unit One

NDW4MI - Unit One

Introduction to Native Studies Definitions and Key Terms Aboriginal An individual who can trace their origins back to the original inhabitants of a region or country. Synonyms Indigenous, First Nations (Canada), Metis (Canada), Inuit (Canada) Avoid Indians, Eskimos

Band A band society is the simplest form of human society Generally consists of a small kin group, no larger than an extended family or clan There is no political structure and leadership is situational (changes) Example Dobe of Southern Kalahari In Canada, Band also refers to the basic unit of First Nations government Tribe Larger

than bands, usually numbering from a few hundred to a few thousand members. Note this term can sometimes be considered insulting. It is still used in the USA, but only in some parts of Canada. Culture

Culture is not a thing, it is a dynamic, fluid process that is changing all the time. Culture is learned and transmitted. It is a shared system that encompasses all the knowledge, beliefs, art, and customs of a society. Culture can be said to provide a lens or screen through which we interpret and respond to the world. (World View) Culture is shared, but not perfectly distributed among any given population.

Example Not all Native Americans are alike, just like not all Germans are alike. Culture What are the elements of culture? How many can you think of? Cultural Bias Interpreting and judging things in terms of ones own culture.

Cultural Stereotyping The tendency to see individuals and societies in simple, superficial and often negative ways. Ethnocentrism The belief that your cultures way of doing

things is the only or the best way. Anthropologists believe that before one can pronounce moral judgement on other customs, one must fully understand the context in which these customs operate. This includes customs practiced in other societies such as cannibalism, domestic violence, ritual circumcision. Cultural Relativity

Coined by Franz Boas Observers must suspend their ethnocentrism to understand other cultures on their own terms. Culture has to be evaluated in terms of its own values, not according to the values of another culture. There is no culture that is better or worse than another, they are just products of a unique history. He called for the suspension of judgement, which is

very difficult to do. He had to rethink his definition after the Holocaust We happen to be the best people in the world Cecil Rhodes, referring to the British Empire during the Victorian Era). Rhodes was ardent believer in British colonialism, Rhodes was the founder of the southern African territory of Rhodesia. There has never been anything so great in the worlds history as the

British Empire. George Nathanial Curzon, the 11th Viceroy of India (during the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent). Worldviews What is a worldview?

The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. Examples of Worldviews: Religious (e.g. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, etc.) Individual cultural groups (e.g. specific indigenous tribes) Scientific (e.g. Big Bang Theory, Evolution) How one perceives time and space

What is our purpose in life? WORLD VIEW PILLARS What happens after life? Where did we come from? The values and beliefs of an individual Indigenous World View Western World View Respect for elders based on their

compassion and inner wisdom Respect for others is based on material achievement Humans have responsibility for maintaining harmonious relationships with the natural world Humans exercise dominion over nature to use it for personal and economic gain Need for reciprocity (giving back) between human and natural worlds.

Resources are viewed as gifts Natural resources are available for human exploitation. Nature is honoured routinely through daily spiritual practice Spiritual practices are sporadic and set apart from daily life Wisdom and ethics are derived from Human reason is more important than direct experience with the natural world the natural world and can produce insights independently

Universe is viewed holistically, where everything works together Universe is compartmentalized into separate units Time is circular with natural cycles that sustain all life Time is a linear chronology of human progress Nature will always possess unfathomable mysteries

Nature is decipherable to the rational human mind More terminology that you should know for this course.. Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada http://www.aadncaandc.gc.ca/eng/ 1100100014642/1100100014643 Indigenous Foundations.Arts.UBC.ca http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/identity/ terminology.html Indian

Indian people are one of three cultural groups, along with Inuit and Mtis, recognized as Aboriginal people under section 35 of the Constitution Act. There are legal reasons for the continued use of the term "Indian." Such terminology is recognized in the Indian Act and is used by the Government of Canada when making reference to this particular group of Aboriginal people. Note this term can sometimes be considered insulting. It is still used in the USA, but only in some parts of Canada. Status Indian

A person who is registered as an Indian under the Indian Act. The act sets out the requirements for determining who is an Indian for the purposes of the Indian Act. Non-Status Indian An Indian person who is not registered as an Indian under the Indian Act. Treaty Indian A Status Indian who belongs to a First Nation

that signed a treaty with the Crown. Mtis People of mixed First Nation and European ancestry who identify themselves as Mtis, as distinct from First Nations people, Inuit or nonAboriginal people. The Mtis have a unique culture that draws on their diverse ancestral origins, such as Scottish, French, Ojibway and Cree. Inuit

An Aboriginal people in Northern Canada, who live in Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Northern Quebec and Northern Labrador. The word means "people" in the Inuit language Inuktitut. The singular of Inuit is Inuk. First Nations A term that came into common usage in the 1970s to replace the word "Indian," which some people found offensive. Although the term First Nation is widely used, no legal definition of it exists. Among its uses, the term "First Nations peoples" refers to the Indian peoples in Canada,

both Status and non-Status. Some Indian peoples have also adopted the term "First Nation" to replace the word "band" in the name of their community. http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/identity/terminology.html Indigenous Indigenous is a term used to encompass a variety of Aboriginal groups. It is most frequently used in an international, transnational, or global context. This term came into wide usage during the 1970s when Aboriginal groups organized transnationally and pushed for greater presence in the United Nations (UN). In the UN,

"Indigenous" is used to refer broadly to peoples of long settlement and connection to specific lands who have been adversely affected by incursions by industrial economies, displacement, and settlement of their traditional territories by others. For more on how this term was developed, please see our section on global actions. http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/identity/terminology.html Native "Native" is a general term that refers to a person or thing that has originated from a particular place. The term "native" does not denote a specific Aboriginal ethnicity

(such as First Nation, Mtis, or Inuit). In the United States, the term "Native American" is in common usage to describe Aboriginal peoples. In Canada, the term "Aboriginal" or "Indigenous" is generally preferred to "Native." Some may feel that "native" has a negative connotation and is outdated. This term can also be problematic in certain contexts, as some non-Aboriginal peoples born in a settler state may argue that they, too, are "native." http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/identity/terminology.html Peoples The plural peoples recognizes that more than one

distinct group comprises the Aboriginal population of Canada. For example, Aboriginal people (singular) might mean each Aboriginal individual, whereas Aboriginal peoples (plural) indicates a number of separate Aboriginal populations. http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/identity/terminology.html To Capitalize or to Not Capitalize?

There is no official consensus on when to capitalize certain terms. Some people consider capitalization a sign of respect to the people you are referring to. Therefore, it may not be necessary to capitalize when using the term as an adjective and not in direct reference to a population. (For example, consider, She is a native to the area to She is Native American or even, She is Native.) Perhaps the term with the most definite capitalization rule is Indian, as it is a legal entity enforced by the Canadian government. Ultimately, style guides have not created strict guidelines. As a result, you may find variation depending on your resources. Oftentimes, authors will explain their decision in a preface or a footnote. http://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/home/identity/terminology.html

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