Nerve activates contraction

Nerve activates contraction

Chapter 3 continued PART b V. The Plasma Membrane-- Transport Terms To Fill Into PPT prior to Class semipermeable, solvent, solute, Intercellular, extracellular, and interstitial fluids Diffusion definition, simple diffusion, concentration gradient Osmosis, Tonicity, hypertonic, isotonic, hypotonic Active Processes- basic characteristics, Know types of Active Processes Vesicular Transport basic characteristics CHAPTER 3 V. The Plasma Membrane-- Transport A. Introduction 1) Semipermeable Substances that can pass through Substances that cannot pass through 2. Solutions and Transport Solutions, Solvent, & Solutes: Intracellular fluid: Interstitial fluid: Types of Transport: Passive and Active

Waste and Signals Nutrients and Signals B. Passive Processes = - Diffusion & Filtration 1. Diffusion = kinetic energy Concentration Gradient Equilibrium Types: (a) Simple diffusion directly through the phospholipid bilayer a) Simple Diffusion

= Dialysis: Simple Diffusion of Gases O2 and CO2 Diffusion of Water Diffusion of lipid-soluble substances Diffusion b) Facilitated Diffusion = = i) Carrier Molecules moved: Mechanism ii)Channels Molecules moved: Mechanism (c) Channel-mediated facilitated (b) Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion through a channel diffusion via protein carrier

protein; mostly ions selected specific for one chemical; binding on basis of size and charge of substrate causes shape change in transport protein c) MOVEMENT OF WATER via Diffusion OSMOSIS: Two Ways: i) Simple Diffusion ii) Facilitated Diffusion Aquaporins Figure 3.10d c) MOVEMENT OF WATER via Diffusion iii) Importance: If solutes cannot freely move through the membrane, then: solute Intracellular and Intercellular fluids must:

b) If solute can move through: iv) Tonicity how the solute concen. affects water movement and cell volume Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic Example: Where will BLOOD CELL: 98% water the water go? Solute higher: 2% solutes SOLUTION: 5% solute ___ %water Water higher: RESULT:

iv) Tonicity Applications of Tonicity Cell placed into isotonic solution: Cell placed into hypertonic solution: Cell placed into hypotonic solution: REVIEW: Diffusion Through the Plasma Membrane Extracellular fluid Lipid-insoluble solutes Lipidsoluble solutes Small lipidinsoluble solutes

Water molecules Lipid bilayer Cytoplasm (a) Simple diffusion (b) Carrier-mediated diffusion facilitated (c) Channel-mediated (d) Osmosis,

facilitated diffusion Figure 3.7 Passive Processes 2. Filtration a) = Forces: b) Pressure gradient c) Membrane pores d) Large biochemicals Kidney C. Active Processes Basic Characteristics Energy: Carrier Protein: Substances transported: Size: Lipid Solubility:

Concentration Gradient: Types Active transport Primary Active Transport Secondary Active Transport Vesicular transport Endocytosis Phagocytosis & Pinocytosis Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Exocytosis 1. Primary Active Transport Primary Transport Pumps: Na+ Na+ Na-K pump (Na-K ATPase) Functions:

Extracellular fluid Na+ glucose Na+ Na+-K+ pump One or two substances can be moved Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm 1 The ATP-driven Na+-K+ pump stores energy by creating a steep concentration gradient for

Na+. Then, the subsequent diffusion of Na releases energy. 1. Primary Active Transport Sodium-Potassium Pump Na+ Extracellular fluid Na+ K+ P Na+ P Na+ Na+ K+ K+

Na+ P K+ ATP ADP Cytoplasm Sodium/Potassium Pump Extracellular fluid Na+ Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm Cell K+

K+ Na+ Na+ Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ Figure 3.10 Extracellular fluid Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+

Na+ Cytoplasm Na+ ATP P Cell K+ K+ Na+ Na+ ADP Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ Figure 3.10 Extracellular fluid

Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm Na+ ATP P Cell K+ K+ Na+

Na+ ADP Use of ATP causes the protein to change its shape. Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ Figure 3.10 Extracellular fluid Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein . Na+ Na+

Na+ Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm Na+ ATP P Cell K+ K+ Na+ Na+ ADP Use of ATP causes the protein to change its shape.

Na+ Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ Na+ Na+ P The shape change expels Na+ to the outside. Figure 3.10 Extracellular fluid Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein. Na+ Na+

Na+ Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm Na+ ATP P ADP Cell K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Use of ATP causes the

protein to change its shape. Na+ Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ P K+ The shape change expels Na+ to the outside. P Pi K+ binding Figure 3.10

Extracellular fluid Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm Na+ ATP P ADP Cell K+ K+

Na+ Na+ Use of ATP causes the protein to change its shape. Na+ Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ P K+

Original conformation of the pump protein is restored The shape change expels Na+ to the outside. P Pi K+ binding Figure 3.10 K+ is released ; the cycle repeats. Extracellular fluid Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein .

Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Cytoplasm K Na+ + ATP P K+ ADP Cell K+

K+ Na+ Na+ Use of ATP causes the protein to change its shape. Na+ Concentration gradients of K+ and Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+

P K+ Original conformation of the pump protein is restored The shape change expels Na+ to the outside. P Pi K+ binding Figure 3.10 2. Active Transport Secondary Stored energy from: Then the ion diffuses: Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid Na+ Na+ Na+ glucose Glucose Na+ Na+-glucose symport transporter releasing glucose into the cytoplasm Na+-K+ pump Na+ Cytoplasm Na+

Cytoplasm Na+ diffuses across the membrane and moves glucose against its concentration gradient into the cell. Types: Symport Antiport Example: transport of glucose Primary Transport Secondary Transport Extracellular fluid Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na -glucose Na+ symport

transporter loading glucose from ECF + Na+-K+ pump Na+ Na+ Glucose Na+ Na+ Na+-glucose symport transporter releasing glucose into the cytoplasm Na+

Cytoplasm 1 The ATP-driven Na+-K+ pump stores energy by creating a steep concentration gradient. 2 Na+ diffuses back across the membrane and moves glucose against its concentration gradient into the cell. Figure 3.11 step 2 Active Processes 3. Vesicular Transport Basic Characteristics Transport of : - needs ATP 3 Major Types: Endocytosis Receptor-mediated

Exocytosis (Transcytosis) Figure 3.12bkE a) Endocytosis - most require membrane bound receptors - all have protein-coated vesicles of protein clathrin - Coated Pit; part of membrane that surrounds substance - Outcomes: (1) Bacteria (2) - Cells: i) Phagocytosis: Size of Substance Coated Pit Identification of Substance - Example: White Blood Cells microbes

engulfing Vesicle Figure 3.13a ii) Pinocytosis: Cells: - Example: Nutrient absorption in the small intestine . Vesicle Figure 3.13b iii) Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Ligand =. Substance - Examples: Uptake of enzymes, low-density insulin lipoproteins, iron and Vesicle

Figure 3.13c b) Exocytosis: - Mechanism: The process of exocytosis Extracellular fluid Fusion pore formed 1 The membrane- Secretory vesicle Molecule to be secreted Cytoplasm bound vesicle migrates to the plasma membrane.

2 There, proteins at the vesicle surface bind to proteins in plasma membrane . 3 The vesicle and plasma membrane fuse and a pore opens up. 4 Vesicle contents are released to the cell exterior. Figure 3.14a Exocytosis

Examples - Hormone Secretion - Neurotransmitter release - Mucus Secretion Figure 3.12b VI The Plasma Membrane: Generation of a Resting Membrane Potential END SPARE SLIDES FOLLOW: Review Question Aside from ______________ which requires hydraulic pressure gradients, all other forms of _____________ transport are driven by _____________, the movement of molecules down their concentration gradients. Review Question 5. Which of the following require ATP? A.Facilitated diffusion B.Osmosis

C.Endocytosis D.Solute pumping E.Simple diffusion F.Pinocytosis G.Exocytosis Review Question 3. Membrane potential is predominantly controlled by what type of ions? What 2 types of cells are particularly sensitive to disturbances of the RMP? Review Questions 4a. Specialized glycoproteins that anchor cells to the extracellular matrix and help attract defensive cells after tissue damage are known as ________ _________ ___________. 4b. ___________ ___________ bind with _________ (hormones, neurotransmitters and other signal molecules) to promote cell recognition, activate membrane bound enzymes, open gated chemical and ion channels, and stimulate second messenger signal transduction among others.

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