Nervous System Divisions

Nervous System Divisions Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain and Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) All other nervous tissue throughout the body

Central Nervous System (CNS) Nerve Tissue: White Matter or Gray Matter The Brain One of the largest organ of the body

Physical and mental activity Memory, emotion, thought, judgment, reasoning and consciousness Four major structures Cerebrum Cerebellum

Diencephalon Brainstem Cerebrum Sensory, perception and interpretation, language, voluntary movement, memory, emotional

behavior Corpus Callosum Communicate right & left Lobes of the Cerebrum

Cerebellum Functions involve movement, equilibrium and balance Diencephalon Thalamus: Receives all sensory stimuli except olfactory

Hypothalammus Regulates the autonomic nervous system (ANS) Brainstem 3 Structures: Midbrain, Medulla,

Pons Controls respirations, blood pressure, and heart rate Spinal Cord Ascending tracts: Sensory nerve

Descending tracts: Motor nerve Meninges 3 layers: Dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

Important Word Roots

Cerebr/o Crani/o Encephal/o Mening/o, meningi/o Thalam/o Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

All nervous tissue located outside of the spinal column and brain Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves Subdivided: Somatic nervous system(SNS) and Autonomic

Nervous System (ANS) Somatic Nervous System (SNS) Nerve Fibers that Transmit sensory info to the brain, spinal cord, and nerve fibers Transmits impulses from brain and

spinal cord to muscles Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Nerve Fibers that Control involuntary movement: digestion, heart contractions, vasoconstriction, regulation of

secretions by glands Subdivided: Sympathetic Parasympathetic Sympathetic Fight or Flight

Parasympathetic Rest and Digest Autonomic Nervous System Cranial Nerves

May be sensory, motor or mixed Sensory: ascending (afferent) Motor: descending (efferent) 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves

I Olfactory: smell II Optic: Vision III Oculomotor: eyelid/eyeball motor

IV Trochlear: Turns eye V Trigeminal: Chewing, face & mouth touch, pain VI Abducens: Turns eye laterally 12 Cranial Nerves VII Facial: facial expressions, tears,

saliva, taste VIII Vestibulocochlear: Hearing equilibrium IX Glossopharyngeal: Taste, senses carotid blood pressure X Vagus: senses aortic blood pressure, slows heart, stimulates

digestive organs, taste 12 Cranial Nerves XI Spinal Accessory: controls trapezius & sternocleidomastoid, controls swallowing XII Hypoglossal: Controls Tongue

movements Spinal Nerves 31 pairs Emerge from the intervertebral spaces in the spinal column 2 points of attachment

Anterior: contains motor fibers Posterior: contains sensory fibers Spinal Nerves

C1-C8 = Cervical Nerves T1-T12 = Thoracic Nerves L1-L5 = Lumbar Nerves S1-S5 = Sacral Nerves

C0 = Coccygeal nerve Medical Word Elements

Kinesi/o Myel/o Neur/o -Phasia -plegia

Cerebrovascular Disease Functional abnormality caused by disorders of the blood vessels of the brain Stroke: Cerebr/o/vascul/ar accident (CVA) (#3 & #1)

Cerebrovascular Disease Ischemic Stroke: narrowing of the arteries of the brain Cerebrovascular Disease Intra/cerebr/al Hem/o/rrhage: (#1/

#2) sudden rupture of an artery within the brain Cerebrovascular Disease Sub/arachnoid Hem/o/rrhage: (#2) Blood is released into the space surrounding the brain

Cerebrovascular Disease Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): mild CVA characterized by blackouts, blurred vision or dizziness F.A.S.T

Signs of Stroke Hemi/paresis: weakness in one half of the body Hemi/plegia: paralysis in one half of the body A/phasia: inability to speak

A/taxia: lack of muscle coordination Seizure Disorders Any medical condition characterized by sudden changes in behavior or consciousness as a result of uncontrolled electrical

activity in the brain Seizure Disorders Epi/lepsy: chronic or recurring seizure disorders Aura

Premonitory awareness of an approaching physical or mental disorder, peculiar sensation that precedes seizures Convulsion Any sudden and violent contraction

of one or more muscles Parkinson Disease Progressive neurological disorder affecting the portion of the brain responsible for controlling movement

Parkinsons Symptoms Brady/kinesia & Hypo/kinesia: decreased speed of movement http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= ECkPVTZlfP8

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) A progressive, degenerative disease of the central nervous system Alzheimer Disease (AD) A progressive neurological disorder

that causes memory loss and serious mental deterioration Dementia Broad Term that refers to cognitive deficit, including memory impairment

Mental Illness Includes an array of psychological disorders, syndromes, and behavioral patterns that cause alterations in mood, behavior, and thinking

Mental Illness Psychosis: serious mental disorder commonly characterized by False beliefs despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary: delusions Hearing voices and seeing visions in

the absence of an actual stimuli: Hallucinations Mental Illness Neurosis: caused by an emotion experienced in the past that overwhelmingly interferes or affects

a present emotion Phobias: irrational fears Hysterias: exaggerated emotional and reflexive behaviors Obsessive compulsive disorders: uncontrolled ritualistic actions

Careers in Mental Illness Psych/iatr/ist: (#1) Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of serious mental disorders Clinical Psych/o/log/ist: (#2) individuals trained in evaluating

human behavior, intelligence, and personality Medical Word Elements & Abbreviations

-kinesia Psych/o

-paresis R/O -taxia CSF CVA TIA PNS SNS ANS

Ataxia Lack of muscle coordination in the execution of voluntary movement Autism Developmental disorder

characterized by extreme withdrawal and an abnormal absorption in fantasy Coma Abnormally deep unconsciousness with absence of voluntary response

to stimuli Closed Head Trauma Injury to the head in which the dura mater remains intact and brain tissue is not exposed

Concussion Injury to the brain, occasionally with transient loss of consciousness as a result of injury or trauma to the head http://www.youtube.com/results?se arch_query=NFL+helmet+to+helm

et Dyslexia Inability to learn and process written language despite adequate intelligence, sensory ability and exposure

Lethargy Abnormal inactivity or lack of response to normal stimuli, sluggish Cerebral Palsy

Type of paralysis that affects movement and body position and, sometimes, speech and learning ability Paralysis Loss of voluntary motion

Hemiplegia: paralysis of one side of the body Paraplegia: paralysis of both lower limbs Quadriplegia: paralysis of both arms and legs

Sciatica Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve felt at the base of the spine, down the thigh, and radiating down the leg due to a

compressed nerve Syncope Temporary loss of consciousness due to the sudden decline of blood flow to the brain (fainting)

Diagnostic & Therapeutic Lumbar Puncture: Needle puncture of the spinal cavity to extract spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= R2_0gOI8uV0

Diagnostic & Therapeutic Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis: a series of lab test used to diagnose disorders of the CNS, including bacterial and viral infections

Diagnostic & Therapeutic Angiography: Radiography of the blood vessels after introduction of a contrast medium Diagnostic & Therapeutic Cryosurgery: Technique that

exposes abnormal tissue to extreme cold to destroy it

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