Network-attached Storage and the UCB ISTORE Approach

Network-attached Storage and the UCB ISTORE Approach

Pattersons Projects, People, Impact Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) What: simplified instructions to exploit VLSI: 80-84 With: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Direct Impact: Suns SPARC, >90% embedded MPUs Symbolic Processing Using RISCs (SPUR) What: desktop multiprocessor for AI: 84 - 89 With: Fateman, Hilfinger, Hodges, Katz, Ousterhout Direct Impact: PPL => fast serial lines => Silicon Image Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) What: many PC disks for speed, reliability: 88 - 93 With: Katz, Ousterhout, Stonebraker Direct Impact:$19B/yr(EMC) 80% nonPC disks in RAID Slide 1 Pattersons Projects, People, Impact Networks of Workstations (NOW) What: big server via switched network of WS 94-98

With: Anderson, Brewer, Culler Direct Impact: Inktomi + many Internet companies Tertiary Disk (TD: a NOW subset project) What: big, cheap, disk-intensive NOW (for SF Museum) 96-99 Direct Impact: Scale8 (big, cheap, reliable Internet storage) Intelligent RAM (IRAM) See 10/2/00 Forbes: EMC, RAID, Scale8 What: media processor inside DRAM chip: 97 - 01 With: Yelick Direct Impact: nBand (easy-to-code DSP for wireless) Slide 2 Whats Next?

Berkeley View of PostPC Era Gadgets (mobile, wireless devices everywhere) Services for Gadgets (big, fat, web servers) For B.F.W.S. Challenge isnt what you think What its NOT: Performance, Cost What it is: Availability meet service goals despite HW/SW failures Maintainability minimal human administration, regardless of scale Today, cost of maintenance = 10-100 cost of purchase Evolutionary Growth systems evolve gracefully as upgraded/expanded Slide 3 Principles for achieving AME Introspection reactive techniques to detect and adapt to failures, workload variations, and system evolution proactive techniques to anticipate and avert problems

before they happen Undo of any system administration event No single points of failure, redundancy everywhere Create AME benchmarks to measure progress Performance robustness, AME goals more important than peak performance, capital cost Brick building block to construct big servers Slide 4 Intelligent STORE (ISTORE) Brick Websters Dictionary: brick: a handy-sized unit of building or paving material typically being rectangular: ~ 2 1/4 x 3 3/4 x 8 in. ISTORE-1 Brick: 2 x 4 x 11 inches (1.3x) Switched networks reduce need for CPU/bus model Brick: Single physical form factor, fixed cooling required, compatible network interface to simplify physical maintenance, scaling over time Contents should evolve over time: contains most cost

effective MPU, DRAM, disk, compatible NI Suggests network that will last, evolve: Ethernet Bricks into big servers via Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Network switches (RAIN) Slide 5 A glimpse into the future? System-on-a-chip enables computer, memory, redundant network interfaces without significantly increasing size of disk ISTORE HW in 5-7 years: 2006 brick: System On a Chip integrated with MicroDrive 9GB disk, 50 MB/sec from disk connected via crossbar switch From brick to domino If low power, 10,000 nodes fit into one 19 x 32 x 7 rack!

O(10,000) scale is our ultimate design point Slide 6 ISTORE as Storage System of the Future Availability, Maintainability, and Evolutionary growth key challenges for storage systems Maintenance Cost ~ >10X Purchase Cost per year, Even 2X purchase cost for 1/2 maintenance cost wins AME improvement enables even larger systems ISTORE has cost-performance advantages Better space, power/cooling costs ([email protected] site) More MIPS, cheaper MIPS, no bus bottlenecks Compression reduces network $, encryption protects Single interconnect, supports evolution of technology Match to future software storage services Future storage service software target clusters Slide 7

Questions? Contact us if youre interested: email: [email protected] http://iram.cs.berkeley.edu/istore phone: (510) 642-6587 FAX: (510) 643-7352 Slide 8 Is Maintenance the Key? Rule of Thumb: Maintenance 10X to 100X HW so over 5 year product life, ~ 95% of cost is maintenance 100% 80% Cause of System Crashes 15% 50% 69% 10%

Operating System failure Hardware failure 18% 20% Other: app, power, network failure System management: actions + N/problem 53% 20% 0% 21% 15% 60% 40%

18% 5% 5% (est.) 1985 1993[Murp95]; 2001 VAX crashes 85, 93 extrap. to 01 Sys. Man.: N crashes/problem, SysAdmin action Actions: set params bad, bad config, bad app install HW/OS 70% in 85 to 28% in 93. In 01, 10%? Slide 9 ISTORE-1 hardware platform 80-node x86-based cluster, 1.4TB storage cluster nodes are plug-and-play, intelligent, network-attached storage bricks

a single field-replaceable unit to simplify maintenance each node is a full x86 PC w/256MB DRAM, 18GB disk more CPU than NAS; fewer disks/node than cluster ISTORE Chassis 80 nodes, 8 per tray 2 levels of switches 20 100 Mbit/s 2 1 Gbit/s Environment Monitoring: UPS, redundant PS, fans, heat and vibration sensors... Intelligent Disk Brick Portable PC CPU: Pentium II/266 + DRAM Redundant NICs (4 100 Mb/s links) Diagnostic Processor Disk Half-height canister Slide 10

Cost of Space, Power, Bandwidth Co-location sites (e.g., Exodus) offer space, expandable bandwidth, stable power Charge ~$1000/month per rack (~ 10 sq. ft.) Includes 1 20-amp circuit/rack; charges ~$100/month per extra 20-amp circuit/rack Bandwidth cost: ~$500 per Mbit/sec/Month ISTORE-1: 2X savings in space vs. Sun 10K ISTORE-1: 1 rack (big) switches, 1 rack (old) UPSs, 1 rack for 80 CPUs/disks (3/8 VME rack unit/brick) ISTORE-2: 8X-16X space? Space, power cost/year for 1000 disks: Sun $924k, ISTORE-1 $484k, ISTORE2 $50k Slide 11 Cost of Bandwidth, Safety Network bandwidth cost is significant 1000 Mbit/sec/month => $6,000,000/year Security will increase in importance for

storage service providers XML => server format conversion for gadgets => Storage systems of future need greater computing ability Compress to reduce cost of network bandwidth 3X; save $4M/year? Encrypt to protect information in transit for B2B => Increasing processing/disk for future storage apps Slide 12

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