Soli Deo Gloria NEURAXIAL BLOCKADE AND ANTICOAGULANTS Lecture 4 Developing Countries Regional Anesthesia Lecture Series Disclaimer Every effort was made to ensure that
material and information contained in this presentation are correct and up-todate. The author can not accept liability/ responsibility from errors that may occur from the use of this information. It is up to each clinician to ensure that they provide safe anesthetic care to their patients. INTRODUCTION Benefits of Neuraxial Blockade
Decreased nausea and vomiting Decreased blood loss Decreased incidence of graft occlusion Improved mobility after major knee surgery Superior postoperative pain control
Less alteration to the cardiopulmonary status of the patient The need for formalized guidance for anticoagulated patient: Advances in pharmacology
Desire to prevent thromboembolism Formulation of thromboembolism prophylaxis Use of regional anesthesia ASRA Guidelines 1998 the first Consensus Conference on
Neuraxial Anesthesia and Analgesia was held. 2002 the second Consensus Conference was held. The result: formalized guidelines to assist the anesthesia provider in decision making. THROMBOPROPHYLAXIS Medications for total joint thromboprophylaxis
Unfractionated heparin Low molecular weight heparin (ardeparin sodium or Normoflo, dalteparin sodium or Fragmin, danaparoid sodium or Orgaran, enoxaprin sodium or Lovenox and tinzaprin or Innohep). Warfarin sodium
Medications for general surgery thromboprophylaxis Unfractionated heparin Low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium) Acute Coronary Syndrome and venous thromboembolism therapy
Enoxaparin sodium (Lovenox) Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin) Tinzaparin (Innohep) The major complication related to anticoagulation is bleeding. Major Bleeding Sites
Intraspinal Intracranial Intraocular Retroperitoneal Mediastinal Factors that increase the risk of a major bleed
Intensity of anticoagulant effect Increased age Female gender Use of aspirin History of Gastrointestional bleed
Duration of treatment Epidural Hematoma Formation Due to spontaneous bleed Due to trauma induced by a needle Epidural Space vs Intrathecal Space
Epidural space is richly supplied with a venous plexus Area around the spinal cord is fixed. Bleeding results in compression, ischemia, nerve trauma, and paralysis. Bleeding into the intrathecal space is diluted by the Cerebral Spinal Fluid (usually less devastating)
Incidence of Epidural Hematoma Formation Epidural anesthesia: 1:150,000 to 1:190,000 Spinal anesthesia: 1:220,000
Epidural anesthesia and anticoagulants administered during surgery: 33:100,000 Spinal anesthesia and anticoagulants administered during surgery: 1:100,000 Risk Factors for the Development of Epidural Hematoma
Anatomic abnormalities of the spinal cord or vertebral column Vascular abnormalities Pathologic/medication induced alterations in homeostasis Alcohol abuse Chronic renal insufficiency Difficult and traumatic needle placement Epidural catheter removal
Signs and Symptoms of an Epidural Hematoma Low back pain (sharp and irradiating) Sensory and motor loss (numbness and tingling/motor weakness long after block
should have abated) Bowel and/or bladder dysfunction Paraplegia Diagnostic Testing MRI (preferred) CT scan (may miss small hematomas) Myelogram
Treatment and Outcome Must be treated within 8-12 hours of onset of symptoms Emergency decompressive laminectomy with hematoma evacuation Outcome is generally poor
Factors Affecting Recovery Size and location of the hematoma Speed of hematoma development Severity and nature of pre-existing neurological problems General ASRA recommendations
related to perioperative use of anticoagulants Concurrent use of coagulation altering medications may increase risk of bleeding without altering coagulation studies. When providing postoperative analgesia with an epidural use opioids or dilute local
anesthetic to allow for neurological evaluation. Remove catheters at the nadir of anticoagulant activity and do not give additional anticoagulants immediately General ASRA recommendations related to perioperative use of anticoagulants
Frequent evaluation of neurological status of the patient should be pursued for early detection of an epidural hematoma. In high risk cases continue monitoring neurological status for 24 hours post catheter removal. Common anticoagulants encountered in the surgical setting.
Antiplatelet medications Oral anticoagulants Standard Heparin Herbal preparations New anticoagulants Specific anticoagulant and ASRA recommendations
Antiplatelet Medications Types of Antiplatelet Medications Aspirin NSAIDS Thienopyridine Derivatives Platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors
Aspirin MECHANISM OF ACTION: Blocks cyclooxygenase. Cyclooxygenase is responsible for the production of thromboxane A2 which inhibits platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. DURATION OF ACTION:
Irreversible effect on platelets. Effect of aspirin lasts for the life of the platelet which is 7-10 days. Long term use of aspirin may lead to a decrease in prothrombin production and result in a lengthening of the PT. NSAIDS MECHANISM OF ACTION: Inhibits cyclooxygenase by decreasing tissue prostaglandin synthesis.
DURATION OF ACTION: Reversible. Duration of action depends on the half life of the medication used and can range from 1 hour to 3 days. ASRA RECOMMENDATIONS Aspirin NSAIDS Aspirin and NSAIDS
Either medication alone does not increase risk. Need to scrutinize dosages, duration of therapy and concomitant medications that may affect coagulation. No wholly accepted laboratory tests. A normal bleeding time does not indicate
normal homeostasis. An abnormal bleeding time does not necessarily indicate abnormal homeostasis. In addition to assessment of concomitant medications look for the following:
History of bruising easily History of excessive bleeding Female gender Increased age Thienopyridine Derivatives MECHANISM OF ACTION: Interfere with platelet membrane function by inhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced plateletfibrinogen binding.
DURATION OF ACTION: Thienopyridine derivatives exert an irreversible effect on platelet function for the life of the platelet. ASRA RECOMMENDATIONS THIENOPYRIDINE DERIVATIVES
DC ticlopidine for 14 days prior to a neuraxial block. DC clopidogrel for 7 days prior to a neuraxial block. There is no accepted laboratory tests for these medications. Platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors
Abciximab (Reopro) Eptifibatide (Integrilin) Tirofiban (Aggrostat) Platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors MECHANISM OF ACTION: Reversibly inhibits platelet aggregation by preventing the adhesion of ligands to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, including
plasminogen and von Willebrand factor. DURATION OF ACTION: For abciximab it takes 24-48 hours until there is normal platelet function. For eptifibatide (Integrellin) and tirofiban it takes 4-8 hours until there is normal platelet function. ASRA RECOMMENDATIONS GP IIB/IIIA INHIBITORS
Platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors No neuraxial blockade should be undertaken until platelet function is normal. GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors are contraindicated within 4 weeks of surgery.
If one is received postoperatively, after a neuraxial block, there should be careful monitoring of the neurological status. Warfarin (Coumadin) MECHANISM OF ACTION: Inhibits vitamin K formation. Depletion of the vitamin K dependent proteins (prothrombin and factors VII, IX and X) occurs.
DURATION OF ACTION: Onset is 8-12 hours with a peak at 3672 hours. ASRA RECOMMENDATIONS WARFARIN Warfarin
Evaluate patient for use of concomitant use of medications that may alter coagulation. Warfarin should be stopped for 4-5 days and a PT/INR should be checked prior to neuraxial blockade. Preoperative warfarin: if warfarin has been administered >24 hours prior or the patient has been given more than 1 dose then check a PT/INR.
Warfarin Patients receiving postoperative epidural analgesia and warfarin should have the PT/INR monitored daily.
If the INR is > 3.0 the dose of warfarin should be witheld. Epidural catheters should be DCd only when the INR is <1.5. If removed with INR > 1.5 the patient should be monitored for neurological deficits for 24 hours. Standard Heparin MECHANISM OF ACTION: Binds with antithrombin III, neutralizing
the activated factors of X, XII, XI and IX. DURATION OF ACTION: The elimination half life for IV heparin is 56 minutes. ASRA RECOMMENDATIONS STANDARD HEPARIN Standard Heparin
Mini-dose subq heparin does not contraindicate a neuraxial block. The administration of subq heparin should be held until after the block. Patients should be screened for concurrent medications that may impact clotting. Patients on heparin for more than 4 days should have a platelet count assessed
prior to neuraxial blockade due to the risk of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. Standard Heparin Heparin administration should be delayed for 1 hour after neuraxial blockade. Indwelling catheters should be removed 24 hours after the last dose and evaluation
of PTT. Heparin should not be reinitiated until 1 hour has passed. If a bloody tap has occurred it should be communicated to the surgeon. No data suggests the mandatory cancellation of the surgical case. LMWH
Ardeparin (Normiflo) Dalteparin (Fragmin) Enoxaparin (Lovenox) Tinzaprain (Innohep) Danaparoid (Organran) LMWH In 1997 the FDA issued a black box warning for LMWH and neuraxial blockade. There were more than 80 voluntary reports of epidural or spinal hematoma formation associated with the use of enoxaparin.
LMWH- factors associated with hematoma formation with enoxaparin Female gender Elderly Traumatic needle/catheter placement Indwelling catheter present during LMWH
administration LMWH administration and risk of hematoma formation Continuous epidural administration and LMWH increases the risk of hematoma formation to 1:3,000. 1:40,000 for patients receiving spinal
anesthesia. LMWH MECHANISM OF ACTION: Effects factor X. LMWH does not alter the patients PTT and there are no laboratory tests to measure its actions. ASRA RECOMMENDATIONS LMWH
General ASRA recommendations Assess the patient for concomitant medications that may alter coagulation. Bloody tap does not necessitate the cancellation of the surgery. Communicate with the surgeon. LMWH administration should occur 24 hours after the bloody tap.
LMWH administration LMWH should be held for 10-12 hours prior to neuraxial blockade for normal dosing. LMWH should be held for 24 hours in the following dosing regimes: enoxaparin 1 mg/kg every 12 hours of 1.5 mg/kg every 24 hours; dalteparin 120 U/kg
every 12 hours or 200 U/kg every 24 hours; tinzaparin 175 U/kg every 24 hours. LMWH administration Twice daily dosing: the first dose should
not be administered until 24 hours after the block. Indwelling catheters should be removed prior to the initiation of LMWH. If a continuous technique is used then the catheter should be removed the next day with the first dose of LMWH occurring at a minimum of 2 hours after catheter removal. LMWH administration
Single daily dosing: first dose of LMWH may be given 6-8 hours postoperatively with the second dose occurring at least 24 hours after the first. Indwelling catheters should be removed 10-12 hours after the last dose of LMWH. Additional doses of LMWH should not occur for at least 2 hours after catheter removal.
Thrombolytic and Fibrinolytic Medications Thrombolytic and Fibrinolytic Medications
Original recommendation was to withhold neuraxial blockade for 10 days. No data concerning the length of time that neuraxial blockade should be withheld. If a patient has received a neuraxial block and unexpectantly receives thrombolytic/fibrinolytic therapy then monitor patient for neurological complications. No recommendations related to the removal of epidural catheters in the patient who unrepentantly receives thrombolytic/fibrinolytic therapy.
Herbal Preparations Herbal preparations mechanism of action
Unknown risk Most patients advised to stop for 5-7 days prior to surgery Screen for concomitant use of medications that alter coagulation Assess the patient for bleeding
tendencies New anticoagulants Fondaparinux (Arixta)
Antithrombotic medication for DVT prophylaxis Binds with antithrombin III which neutralizes factor Xa. Peak effect in 3 hours with half life of 1721 hours Irreversible effect Need further clinical experience to formulate guidelines Black box warning similar to the LMWH
New anticoagulants Bivalirudin- thrombin inhibitor used in interventional cardiology. Lepirudin used to treat heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Caution advised. No recommendations related to limited clinical experience.
Anticoagulation and peripheral nerve blockade Case reports of major bleeding occurring with psoas compartment and lumbar sympathetic blocks. Patients with neurological deficits had complete recovery in 6-12 months. The key
to this reversal was the fact that bleeding occurred in expandable tissue as opposed to the non-expandable compartments associated with neuraxial blockade. References
Claerhout AJ, Johnson M, Radtke JD, Zaglaniczny KL. Anticoagulation and spinal and epidural anesthesia. AANA Journal. 2004;72: 225-231. Horlocker TT, Wedel DJ, Benzon H, et al. Regional anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient: defining the risks (The second ASRA Consensus conference on neuraxial anesthesia and anticoagulation). Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28:172-197. 2nd Consensus Conference on Neuraxial Anesthesia and Anticoagulation. April 25-28th, 2002. Accessed at http://asra.com/Consensus_Conferences/Consensus_Statem ents.shtml
Kleinman W. Spinal, epidural, and caudal blocks. In Morgan G, Mikhail MS, Murrey MJ, Larson CP. Clinical Anesthesiology 3rd Edition. Lange Medical Books, New York. 2002; 279-280.
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