New England Colonies

New England Colonies

Warm Up Define: Southern Colonies (just list the colonies) Virginia Company Jamestown Bacons Rebellion New England Colonies (just list the colonies) Mid-Atlantic Colonies 13 COLONIES NEW ENGLAND COLONIES

Standard SSUSH1 C. Explain the development of the New England colonies including reasons of establishment, impact of location, relations with Native Americans and economic development Religious Motives for colonization, male & female settlers, tight knit communities, mixed economy

Plymouth Colony Protestant Reformation sparked dramatic changes in Europe and lead to rise of Puritanism Pilgrims: Separatists who wanted to break away from the Anglican church Pilgrims sough to establish a colony: Land at Plymouth Mayflower Compact signed prior to arrival : agreement established a basic government based upon majority rule

Established basis for self government Local native leader Squanto helped the colony survive in its early years Massachusetts Bay Colony In 1629 Puritan John Winthrop received a charter to est. the Massachusetts Bay Colony Puritans wanted to purify the church Goal: Wanted to be as a City Upon a Hill Religion was extremely important in the New England colonies-education (Harvard)

Religious freedom was reserved ONLY for Puritans Church membership was a requirement for participation in politics Town Hall Meeting became an important part of direct democracy in colonial America (all church going males could participate) Economy: mixed economy Religious Dissent Roger Williams questioned Puritan Leadership

Called for complete separation of church and state and criticized the colonies treatment of Native Americans Banished from the colony Founded Providence, Rhode Island 1st colony with complete religious freedom Anne Hutchinson challenged the accept role of women within the church by openly speaking out against church leaders

Conflict with Native Americans Pequot War (1630s): New England colonist wipe out Pequot tribe New England Confederation (1643): military alliance intended to defend the NE colonies against potential threats King Philips/Metacoms War (1675-76): leader of the Wampanoags defeated by colonists End of major Native resistance to the New England colonies.

Standard SSUSH1 B. Explain the development of the Mid-Atlantic colonies including reasons of establishment, impact of location, relations with Native Americans and economic development Middle Colonies: Breadbasket New York was originally a Dutch colony called New Amsterdam Charles II sends a military expedition and grants area to his brother James the Duke of York (1664)

Pennsylvania (1681) founded by William Penn as refuge for Quakers (Holy Experiment) Very liberal colony-representative assembly Treated Native Americans fairly Religious toleration & freedom

Extended rights to women Demographically, religiously, & ethnically diverse Economics: wheat, corn (breakbasket), trade, etc. Colonial Policy Mercantilism: colonies to enrich the mother country Salutary neglect Navigations Acts: 1) trade carried only

in English or colonial ships 2) trade had to pass through English ports 3) certain enumerated goods from the colonies could be exported only to England (tobacco, etc.) Smuggling was a problem Dominion of New England (1686): implemented to increase royal control over the colonies Very unpopular: enforced the Navigation Acts, limited town meeting, etc.

Standard SSUSH1 C. Explain the development of the Southern colonies including reasons of establishment, impact of location, relations with Native Americans and economic development Virginia and Maryland (upper southern region) 1st permanent English colony in North America established at Jamestown in 1607-motive was wealth.

Setup under a joint stock company: Virginia Company Starving Period: many of the original settlers die of disease, starvation, etc. John Smith established military discipline and saved the colony John Rolfe introduced the cultivation of tobacco

RELATIONS WITH NATIVE AMERICANS Very hostile relationship developed between the colonist and the Powhatan Tribe. Tensions increased as the settlers moved west. Anglo-Powhatan Wars 1610-1646 1st war ends in 1614 with marriage between

Pocahontas & John Rolfe Massacre of 1622 begins 2nd war By 1624 Jamestown becomes royal colony Powhatan Confederacy largely defeated by 1646 Powhatan Confederacy defeated by a variety of factors Disease, disorganization and disposability BACON!!!!!!!! Indian Conflict

Growing immigration demand for land for settlement & tobacco (Powhattans younger brother & successor) resisted expansion & conversion attempts 1622 War: surprise attacks by 12 chiefdoms killing 347 colonists 1623 Peace meeting killing all 250 Virginia Co. called for a perpetual war until Native Americans were eradicated. 1644-1646 Second Anglo-Powhatan War Last effort of natives to defeat English,

Indians defeated again. Peace Treaty of 1646 Removed the Powhattans from their original land. Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas Southern Colonies South Carolina: cash crop (rice) plantation economy, wealthy aristocratic elite, African slave labor North Carolina-different: small tobacco

farmers, less reliance on slavery Caribbean (Barbados & Jamaica): cash crop (sugar cane), strict slave labor system from the start Georgia: served as a buffer colony against Spanish & French threat, penal colony for debtors and originally banned slavery Would later become a plantation based on slavery society

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