Agenda Part 4 Part 4 New POI How to look at the POI The Program Education Training Evaluating Conclusion If the mind is to emerge unscathed from this relentless struggle with the unforeseen [in war], two qualities are indispensable: first, an intellect that, even in the darkest hour, retains some glimmerings of the inner light which leads to truth; and second, the courage to follow this faint light wherever it may lead. Carl von Clausewitz On War 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 1 How to Look at POI Defining the end state Future LTs must be adaptive and have intuition: Commanding units that operate dispersed, but cannot rely on technology Leading more powerful units at all levels! Influence decisions at all levels of war Transition from complex unit fighting to humanitarian tasks demanding different skills, based on decision making skills => Both are Key to Success The US military must overcome the way it has trained and educated leaders. Defense officials are moving ahead to overcome Cold-War
era training to create a new generation of leaders who aren't constrained by what the doctrine says. General Richard B. Myers, CJCS September 2004 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 2 How to Look at POI Defining the end state Adaptability What is Adaptability? Adaptability refers to the process of adjusting practices, processes, and systems to projected or actual changes of environment, e.g., the climate or the enemy. Adaptability includes the creation of innovative combined arms organizations, doctrine, systems, and training concepts as demanded by the environment, allies, and the enemy. Adaptive solutions to complex problems in chaotic, unpredictable situations are based more on intuition than on analysis, deliberate planning, and doctrine. Sun Tzus theory of adaptability to existing situations is an important aspect of his self thought. Just as water adapts itself to the conformation of the ground, so in war one must be flexible; he must adapt his tactics to the enemy situation. John Poole, The Last Hundred Yards 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 3 How to Look at POI Defining the end state Intuition
From Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004) What is Intuition? Intuition is the way we translate experience into action Training and education can provide experience that builds intuition Intuition enables rapid decision making without conscious awareness or effort Intuition enhances decisions at all levels Three elements of intuition training: Identify decision requirements of the job Practice decision making in context Review and obtain feedback on decision making experiences Defining intuition: As Army officers, we are primarily decision makers. Our weapon is the unit we command. We decide on a course of action and then clearly communicate that decision to our unit. Our Soldiers translate that decision into action. Combat Squad Leaders Course, Syllabus for MLSC 113, Georgetown University ROTC (Spring 2005) 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 4 How to Look at POI Principles in Education Theme: Develop adaptability and intuition Take people out of their comfort zones Training with stress Experience the thing before you try to give it a name teaching approach Knowledge and abilities to be learned
Mental processes to be developed Experience Real or virtual in the broad spectrum of missions associated with asymmetric war Exposure to problem solving processesFrom Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004) Finally, Duty, Honor and Country. Those intangible things must still be taught but over the length of the 4 years. Major Darryl M. Perry Morgan State University, Nov 2004 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 5 How to Look at POI Principles in Education (EPIC) Encourage Self-awareness Elements: Self-awareness; character; self-leadership Self-aware and adaptive leaders are the basis for success in full spectrum operations. The greater self-awareness gained by assessment against measurable standards, the more adaptive the leader (ATLDP, 2004) Promote Critical and Creative thinking Elements: Critical thinking/creativity & innovation; risk-taking Critical thinking skills are becoming especially important now as our world is changing at an ever-accelerating rate Critical thinking skills are needed to adapt to a changing environment (ARI) Insist on Courageous Communication
Elements: relationship management; effective listening Create an environment for continuous learning Elements: The learning organization; Owner/Coach mentoring; Effective Feedback (360 degreesafe two-way feedback) From Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004) 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 6 How to Look at POI Principles in Education Adaptability Is a cognitive skill, e.g., intuition Must be inculcated across Cadet Command in all aspects of training Requires trust and cohesion human interpersonal dynamics trump technical solutions Requires a climate that accepts and rewards adaptable and creative individuals From Learning To Adapt To Asymmetric Threats The Institute of Defense Analysis (Nov 2004) Learning adaptability
requires Education in how to think Multiple training events with widely varying and frequently shifting tasks and conditions Recognition of the need to change Encourage experimentation with doctrine, task organization, etc. Focus feedback on adaptability, innovation and outcomes rather than on performance to standard Training environment that acknowledges failure as a possibility 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 7 How to Look at POI Development-Education vs. Training Resources In sum: Task Training Education: How to think
Educate early, tasktrain as necessary to enhance decision making, as cognitive skills established plug in task training Baseline Complexity Cognitive Skills education 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff Task Training 8 How to Look at POI Development Begins with tough screening Baseline A Better BLOC Task Training Cognitive Skills education Academic Rigor
begins here First tough cut comes here Rite of Passage First unit Ft Benning IN AR FA AV Ft Bliss AD EN MP CM Ft Knox
SC MI TC MS Ft Sill QM OD AG FI BLOC I BLOC II BLOC III Establishes the foundation in cognitive skills how to think sets the foundation Culturalize Brings together
those who passed through the gate of commissioning, creating bonds Specialized training, and administrative tasks 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff Functional Training (ABN/Ranger, Scout Leader) These may be offered earlier 9 How to Look at POI Development-Lots of Tools STX (LDX, LTX-Free play, force on force) Vignettes Mentors/Coaches What if? What then? Combat Land Navigation Distributed Learning
Standards 360 degree evaluations (for Everyone, Even Cadre) Ownership of Program by Cadets Positions of Responsibility mirror the Armys Complex learning scenarios Grey area situations Volatility, ambiguity, uncertainty Non-Combat Problems Tactical Decision Games (TDGs) Innovative Physical Training OEF/OIF LL Scenarios ARI/SCP Best Practices Internet War Games TEWT Staff Rides (virtual?) Reading lists Timed Essay Exams Competitions like improved Ranger Challenge Leadership Development Program
2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 10 The Program The Future Program New Name What do people think when they hear ROTC?: Extracurricular activity, A club? Drill and ceremony? Lieutenant lost with map? cant spell lost without LT Its a dead end assignment! Increased demands for professionalism warrant a new name, OEP: Officer Education Program 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 11 The Program Keystone the right people More of a personnel investment Rotate successful commanders at company and battalion into PMS and APMS jobs PMS job becomes second battalion command (to
consolidated programs), i.e., like training battalion Identifier for those who instruct, can return PMS as combat arms only As educators and trainers Establish a new career track as educator Give those who teach a masters degree in leadership School of Cadet Command focus on how to teach Non-deployable combat veterans as cadre NCO schools teach more NCO/officer relationships, and mentorship 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 12 The Program Keystone the right people More of a personnel investment Expand the Armys stabilization program where Divisions (or Brigades) throughout the nation sponsor programs Enables personnel to rotate from units to programs and back Will further to enhance stabilization of families Example, 82nd Airborne Division sponsors schools in NC, SC and VA Units will have a more vested interest in quality of lieutenants Can host cadets to unit visits/participate in training Outside command, officers sought instructor assignments as the only valuable place to be if they could not lead soldiers. Bruce Gudmundsson Stormtroop Tactics (1989)
2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 13 The Program The Future Program Recruits and Retains Good programs sustain themselves: Cadets will sell their program Conduct a strengths, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis every six months An analysis into their strategic value target (SVT) based on the SAL. Conduct a positioning analysis Determine the points of differentiation Reasons to believe those points will impact a programs success Marketing campaigns centered around the individual school, not a canned CC campaign Incentivize a program for success. Instill an entrepreneurial spirit within a battalion Stop using Neo-Taylorism language in speaking about people Build it and they will come The Field of Dreams 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 14 The Program Future Program Recruiting and Scholarships Theme of marketing: Sell the army on its true merits
Standards and academic rigor will sell over time (patience) Scholarships are a thing of the past MS I (freshman) does not get benefits, transitions into the program Beginning their MS II (upon contract), A low interest loan to pay for their entire education (including room and board; minus stipend) Army loan is paid and forgiven upon commissioning (including freshman year, exception is disenrollment or medical reasons) Problem: Officers entering [active duty] (OCS/ROTC nonscholarship) often have debt associated with educational costs without access to debt repayment plan such as exists for enlisted personnel. State of Command Brief (Fall 2002) U.S. Army Cadet Command 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 15 The Program Future Program Recruiting and Scholarships Green to Gold receives loan under same conditions as stated Other incentives: Cadet completes each year given an increased bonus 1k for MSI, 2k for MS II and 3k for MS III Like USMA graduates, new officers get a low interest loan Cadets get bonuses for completing hard to find Foreign language skills such as Chinese or Arabic Skills that lean toward specialties in need Completion of a graduate degree the October 2004 survey at Northwestern specifically asked how many of the students would consider serving as a prison guard in places like Abu Ghraib and
Guantanamo. In return, they would have their student loans forgiven and be given G.I. Bill benefits for graduate school. A remarkable 11 percent that this would be a very likely option and another 18 percent would seriously consider such an option. Dr. Charlie Moskos The Citizen Soldier: The Ideal and Reserve Culture (October 2004) 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 16 The Program The Degree in Decisive Leadership s ol e o h c sc rien y m xpe r A s ral e d n te ultu t A rc O AC D L
Ev on i t a alu Commissioning BA Decisive Leadership S M IV lan ge S M III n eig r Fo a
gu S M II M S I nd a , l ra ltu r de a Le u ,C y r C sto O on i H f tr
Ar fir ac m st t s y ye a lo t an ar , en be d gi ns 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff t en m ire u q re s / ce d vi ol er -G r s to io nPr ree G Open to any person admitted to school
and passes DOPMER Army loan forgiven 17 The Program The Future Program Summary Summer Training Course Semester 1 Semester 2 MS I Soldier First MS I, Science, Writing, Communications, Foreign Language MS I, History, Literature, Foreign Language; Contract Army Schools Or,
cultural studies MS II Squad Ldr MS II, Ldr theory, History, culture Foreign Language MS II, Grp Dynamics, History, Foreign Language Army Schools Or, cultural studies MS III Innovative MS III, Sociology, Cultural studies, Foreign studies MS III, Cultural studies, mil-history, Foreign Language
LEC Army schools MS IV Transition MS IV, Security studies, mil-history, Foreign Language MS IV, Strategic studies, mil-history, Foreign Language 2LT TAC at LEC or Goldbar Other Reqs. Orientation Course, FTXs, Labs, PT, BDE FTX, Counseling FTXs, Labs, PT, BDE FTX, Counseling
2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 18 The Program BA in Leadership BA in Leadership A better education for all cadets Over time, the curricula of Future Program merges with other existing on-campus leadership programs Cadets still have option for minor, while enrolled and advancing in other disciplines, especially in sciences Focus is how to think and decision-making as the foundation all officers Understands their role in the larger picture Additionally Proficiency in foreign language Establishes cognitive skills Cultural studies Military history Physical fitness is stressed and greatly improved 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 19 The Program BA in Leadership Understand other cultures (part of contract to commission) Bonuses for languages such as Arabic, Russian, Chinese,
Urdu, Pashtun, Farsi, Tagalog, etc No bonuses for Spanish, French and German, but meets requirement Must take some type of foreign cultural studies prior to commissioning Assist cadets who qualify for Scholarships and Fellowships After commissioning, 2 years of graduate school before returning funds to study abroad and learn about other cultures In the late 19th century, the British Army seconded bright officers to various corners of the world to immerse them in the cultures of the Empire and to become intimate with potentates from Egypt to Malaya. Names such as China Gordon and T. E. Lawrence testify to the wisdom of such a custom. Culture-Centric Warfare Major General Robert Scales, Jr. U.S. Army (Retired) Proceedings, September 2004 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 20 Education The military curriculum The principles of education and the tools just mentioned are embodied in: Academics: MS I-Laying the Foundation: The Soldier MS II-The Combat Squad Leaders Course MS III-Innovative Tactical Thought MS IV-Transition Toward Officership Training: Physical training must be challenging and innovative Labs centered around individual and unit tasks FTXs focus on free play force on force scenarios
The advantage which a commander thinks he can attain through continued personal intervention is largely illusory. By engaging in it he assumes a task that really belongs to others, whose effectiveness he thus destroys. He also multiplies his own tasks to a point where he can no longer fulfill the whole of them. Helmuth von Moltke, papers of von Moltke 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 21 Education The military curriculum Know the tactical and operational doctrine manuals The Future Program text books by John Poole The Last Hundred Yards: The NCOs contribution to Warfare Tactics of the Crescent Moon: Militant Muslim Combat Methods The Tigers Way: A U.S. Privates Best Chance for Survival Phantom Soldier: The Enemys Answer to U.S. Firepower Other Core Books William S. Lind, The Maneuver Warfare Handbook Anton Myrer, Once an Eagle Alister Horne, A Savage War of Peace The Last Hundred Yards was the best small unit tactics manual published in many years. Now, just in time for Iraq, Afghanistan and wherever else the neo-cons want to send American soldiers to die, he is offering his take on how Islamic non-state forces fight. Tactics of the Crescent Moon, should be in the backpack of every American soldier and Marine. Book review by William S. Lind 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 22
Education The military curriculum Tactical decision games (TDGs) develop adaptability and intuition Johann Pestalozzis methods adapted by Prussians Experience the thing before you try to give it a name Use as quizzes or exams (oral or written) Vary conditions Solve TDG under time limit With loud music playing Feed changing intelligence Brief decisions to instructor, peers and subordinates A subordinate's failure to act in the absence of orders was illegal and inexcusable in the eyes of his superiors and peers. An officer was expected to act on the situation as he saw it, and he knew his action would be supported. As a result, action in the face of uncertainty and responsibility for that action was developed into a social norm. LTC John Silva Auftragstatik: Its Orgin and Development Infantry Magazine (Sept-Oct 1989) 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 23 Education The military curriculum MS I: Laying the FoundationThe Soldier
Revolves around The Tigers Way: A U.S. Privates Best Chance for Survival & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook Two-day course introducing them to the US Army Riflemen in same squad, platoon and company entire time as cadet Land navigation, physical training; intro to orders process Semesters, consisting of four core blocks: A Growing Threat at 75 Yards The New Basics Encourage how to think What The Eastern Soldier Does The Winning Edge Includes historical case studies for examples Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate classes or as dog tags 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 24 Education The military curriculum MS II: The Combat Squad Leaders Course Revolves around Phantom Soldier: The Enemys Answer to U.S. Firepower , Tactics of the Crescent Moon: Militant Muslim Combat Methods & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook Team and squad leaders
More land navigation and physical training TDGs Focuses on squad level missions Semesters four core blocks: The Eastern Way of War The Differences in Tactical Technique Encourage how to think The Next Disappearing Act Strategies for Deception Includes historical case studies for examples Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate blocks of instruction 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 25 Education The military curriculum MS III: Innovative Tactical Thought Revolves around The Last Hundred Yards: The NCOs contribution to Warfare & The Maneuver Warfare Handbook Initially squad leaders and platoon sergeant, evolve to PLs/CO Land navigation and physical training Briefing OPORDs and TDGs to peers and instructors Officer and NCO relationships Consists of three core blocks: The Shortfall in Recorded Knowledge Techniques from the NCO Corps Encourage how to think More Complex Problems Includes historical case studies for examples Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate
blocks of instruction 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 26 Education The military curriculum MS IV: Transition toward Officership Updated reading lists based on Canon Two-day duties and responsibilities course Extension of Cadre positions based on campus OML Plan and execute labs (task training) and field training exercises are variables in free play force on force environments OPORDs to PMS and cadre for each major event Two Semesters, Consisting of: News Briefings & Leadership Briefings Discussions from Readings Encourage how to think Essays Based on Assigned Readings Quizzes, Tests and Final Exams Army values are presented as part of case studies, not as separate classes 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 27 Training Train the mind as well as the body PT must be challenging and fun By the time APFT is given, it is seen as a break Three days is not enough Not punishmentit becomes a way of life
Cadre and cadets must be innovative as well Get that wounded member to this location Weekly foot road marches Reference, Physical Training Programs for light infantry units: are they preparing soldiers for the rigor of combat? by Major Frank ODonnell FM 21-20, Physical Fitness Training, is a good manual that emphasizes combat readiness and train as you fight but does an equally poor job of explaining how to do this, and the Army physical fitness test (APFT) does not adequately correspond to the actual physical readiness of a soldier in the performance of his combat tasks. Frederick ODonnell, MAJ, USA, Physical Training Programs 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 28 Training Labs (see back ups-approach to training) Move from the classroom to practice Decentralize as much as possible Individual tasks up to squad Buddy team drills Individual movement techniques (IMT) Land navigation Train as cohesive squads as much as possible Let MS IVs and MS IIIs serve as trainers Must rehearse classes before cadre Must recon, calibrate and walk through each lab Our labs train cadets on the how to with tools which they can
chose when making decisions during free play exercises. c/LTC Dan Feehan (Nov 2004) 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 29 Training Field Training Exercises (see back ups-approach to training) Evaluation of leadership dealing with complex unit problems Center around force-on-force free play exercises Involve latest lessons from war, Cadet Command creates mobile training team Continually develops new scenarios Cadre evaluate how people change under stress Brigades host two major FTXs, one fall and one spring: Multi-echelon free play force-on-force exercise fire team through company Masses limited resources such as MILEs and blanks Create TAC teams for continual assessment and mentorship TAC Teams rotate for 12 hours, in order to maintain continual observation MS IIIs and MS IVs stated that they learned the most during FTXs MS3 & MS 4 Survey SY02-03, U.S. Army Cadet Command, 11 Nov 2004 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 30 Training
LTC becomes an Infusion Course, for lateral entry cadets to catch up with progression cadets Summer training not limited to Army schools/units Send cadets to other cultures Open up Army schools: scout leaders, mortar leaders, etc Eliminate 2 and 3-year ROTC contracts/cadets (except Green-toGold) Military education demands this in the 21st Century Applicants with prior service at least two years, and pass screening may advance to MS III year if academically aligned Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide. Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleons Maxims 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 31 Training Leadership Evaluation Course (LEC), a Ranger course (with sleep)28 Days. Replaces LDAC (summer camp) No make ups (unless injured) on APFT or Land Nav Is a test: exceeds standards, standards, or fails Focus on evaluation of leadership, not training tasks Evaluations during free play force on force exercises: LDP as used on campus (focused on decision making) Complexity of problems grows throughout exercise Programs assess cadets who can handle more prior to arrival Three TAC Teams throughout rotation => 24 hour observed Emphasis on the Warrior Ethic: Garrison for in-processing, APFT, and clearing (4 days)
Cadets live in field as in combat environment the entire time Will continue to do land navigation and BRM (tactical) Foot road march everywhere 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 32 Evaluating Core of the Leadership Evaluation Approach (LEA) is: Uses double looping Provides different perspectives to develop leadership Clarifies assumptions across the frame work of leadership Uses 360 evaluations, peer, subordinate and cadre At heart of assessment, is did the cadet make a decision, then ask, in a timely manner, in the spirit of: Commanders intent (two levels up) Mission statement (given the conditions at that time) If no decision, then failure From dimensions of 15 To 3 guiding-actions: Problem solving Social judgment Knowledge 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 33 Evaluating Other aspects of double-loop: In task performance: APFT
Land Navigation To briefings: OPORDs, Training, Leadership, News, TDGs With exams and quizzes, which revolve around essays under timed conditions for example: Cadet receives a higher OPORD with instructions given the company OPORD, a map, cadet will write a platoon OPORD, and then be prepared to respond with actions (in writing) to a series of questions pertaining to this mission, under a time restriction Instructors continually tweak character through feedback on evaluations 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 34 New POI Conclusion Establishing and sustaining a reputation Making-Mission is subordinated to quality Using Goals instead of mission when talking numbers Flexibility to get within a percentage below or above Goal It is subordinated to how well a program prepared cadets LEC becomes a test, measure of program as well How do cadets do at other evaluations and training as well Positive, vice negative, view: programs will build credibility points for: Honor and distinguished graduates of OBCs and Army schools Or, finishing difficult schools like Ranger school Sending a number of cadets and finishing summer training Percentage of cadets finishing DMG
Inspections adhere to principles in education, bde/Rgn sit in on classes, watch instruction or training. 2005 Donald E. Vandergriff 35
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