Geography Chapter 16 Human Geography of Russia and

Geography Chapter 16 Human Geography of Russia and

Geography Chapter 16 Human Geography of Russia and the Republics: A Diverse Heritage Russias aggressive expansion between 1500 and 1900 created a vast nation with a diverse, and often turbulent, mix of peoples and cultures. Next Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Geography Chapter 16 Human Geography of Russia and the Republics: A Diverse Heritage SECTION 1

Russia and the Western Republics SECTION 2 Transcaucasia SECTION 3 Central Asia Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16

Section-1 Russia and the Western Republics From modest beginnings, Russia expanded to become the largest country in the world. The rise and fall of the Soviet Union affected the worlds political geography. Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 Section-1 1

Russia and the Western Republics A History of Expansion Russia and its Neighbors Expansion adds variety of people, cultures, languages, religions includes Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine to west Baltic RepublicsEstonia, Latvia, Lithuania Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 A History of Expansion {continued} Birth of Empire 9th-century Vikings settle near Kiev, adopt Slavic customs

settlement expands between Baltic, Black seas In 1200s, Mongol warriorsTatarsinvade, sack Kiev Tatars control region until Ivan the Great expels them in 1500s Russia expands to east until empire reaches Pacific ocean by 1700 Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 A History of Expansion {continued} Russia Lags Behind Western Europe Rapid territorial growth is not matched by technological advancement Czaror emperorPeter the Great (1682-1725) modernizes Russia moves capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg on Baltic sea

St. Petersburg provides sea access to Europe: window to the West Russia is slow to industrialize, trailing Europe by half a century eventual industrialization brings harsh working condition, low wages peoples unrest and anger with czars grows Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 1 A History of Expansion {continued} The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union Russian Revolution1917 revolt ends reign of the czars

V.I. Lenins Communist Party takes over government, economy Communist Party organizes diverse peoples of Russian empire forms Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Joseph Stalin takes over USSR, leads fight against Germany in WWII Relations between USSR and WWII Allies (including U.S., U.K.) worsen after war, pro-Soviet governments installed in Eastern Europe Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 A History of Expansion {continued} The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union In 1940s, tensions grow as U.S. fears worldwide Communist expansion

Cold WarU.S.-USSR conflict that never becomes open warfare In 1980s, Mikhail Gorbachev allows more economic, political freedom leads to collapse of Soviet Union, end of Cold War in 1991 Region divides into 15 independent republics Russia is largest, most powerful republic has popularly elected president, two-chamber Federal Assembly Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 Building a Command Economy An Economic Dream

In 1917, Communists follow ideas of Karl Marx, German philosopher feel capitalism is doomed because few are wealthy, many are poor predict communismshared property, wealthwill replace it Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 Building a Command Economy {continued} A Harsh Reality Soviet leaders adopt a command economy central government makes major economic decisions controls the wealth: land, mines, factories, banks, transportation decides what products, crops are produced; sets prices

USSR increases industrialization, including farming collective farmslarge teams of laborers gathered to work together thousands are moved to farms; by 1939, 90% of farms are collectives Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 Building a Command Economy {continued} A Harsh Reality Millions of citizens starve in famines caused, in part, by collectives In reality, only a few individuals benefit from the economic changes Stalins police punish any protest some estimate Stalin causes 14 million deaths

In 90s, Russia tries to put economic control back in private hands Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 A Rich Culture Ethnicity and Religion Rich variety of ethnic groups due to centuries of expansion Russia has greatest diversity; 80% are Russian 70 other peoples live in Russia: Finnish, Turkic, Mongolian Most Russians are Orthodox Christian (adopted in 900s) persecution caused many Jews to emigrate to Israel, U.S.

Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 1 A Rich Culture {continued} Artistic Genius

Orthodox art, architecture includes onion-shaped domes, icons Cultural golden age begins after Peter opens communication to West 17001800s writers include Aleksandr Pushkin, Feodor Dostoyevsky Composers include Peter Tchaikovsky, Igor Stravinsky Famous ballet companies include the Kirov and Bolshoi Communist Party dictates official style of art called socialist realism promotes Soviet ideals, shows citizens working for socialist society Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 Tradition and Change in Russian Life

A More Open Society Since collapse of USSR, region is more open to outside influences More social, cultural opportunities in Moscow, St. Petersburg books, periodicals, movies, music, clothes, international foods Native traditions, grain-based foods still survive rye bread, kasha, vodka (from rye or wheat) Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 Tradition and Change in Russian Life Dachas and Banyas Only 1/4 of Russians live rurally, but countryside is cherished

30% of people spend weekends, vacations in dachas (country homes) small, plain houses, often with vegetable gardens Banyas (bathhouses) are popular cleaning ritual starts with 200-degree sauna then a steam room, with birch twigs finally, a plunge into ice-cold water, followed by drinking hot tea Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 Dachas Previous

Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Banyas Next Geography Chapter 16 Section-2 Transcaucasia Transcaucasia has been a gateway between Europe and Asia. The Caspian Seas oil and gas reserves have given the region great economic potential. Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Next Geography Chapter 16 Section-2 Transcaucasia A Gateway of Migration A Variety of Cultures Transcaucasia includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia Area is historical migration route between Europe and Asia trade routes near Black Sea lead to Mediterranean routes from Caspian Sea lead to Far East Due to routes, today more than 50 different peoples live in region Variety of language families include Indo-European, Caucasian, Altaic Arab geographers call area Jabal Al-AlsunMountain of Language

Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 A Gateway of Migration {continued} Migration Brings Religions Most people are Christian, Muslim due to proximity to southwest Asia Armenia and Georgia are among oldest Christian states in the world Armenias King Tiridates III made his state Christian in A.D. 300 Muslims invaded southern Caucasus in 600s today Azerbaijan is mostly Muslim Conflict Ethnic tensions, in check under rigid Soviet rule, erupt after 1991

Georgian civil war; Armenia and Azerbaijans territorial war Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 A History of Outside Control Czarist and Soviet Rule Russian Empire invades region in 1700s in 1763 Peter the Greats armies take Baku, Azerbaijans capital in 1801 Russia annexes Georgia by 1828 Russians control Armenian territory, plain of Yerevan Transcaucasia is part of Russian Empire by late 1870s

Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 2 A History of Outside Control {continued} Czarist and Soviet Rule Region is briefly independent after 1917 Revolution by early 1920s, region controlled by Red ArmySoviet military Region suffers painful economic, political change under USSR many die in famines triggered by farm collectivization others perish due to their political beliefs Independent after 1991, republics struggle to rebuild economies

Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 2 Economic Potential {continued} Agriculture and Industry Despite mountains, have much agriculture humid subtropical lowlands yield tea, fruits, grapes (Georgian wines) Soviet-era factories still produce iron, chemicals, consumer goods Azerbaijan is oil-rich; pipelines are needed across Armenia, Georgia

Land of Flames Azerbaijan means land of flames named so because fires seem to magically erupt from Caspian fires due to underground oil, gas deposits Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 2 Economic Potential {continued} Dividing the Caspian Sea After Soviet breakup, five countries have claims on oil-rich Caspian

Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran ownership depends on whether its a lake or sea If a sea, each country owns resources on its own section of sea bed If a lake, all countries share most of the lakes oil wealth equally Azerbaijan has large offshore oil reserves, so it says its a sea Russia has few offshore oil reserves, so it says its a lake Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 Modern Life in Transcaucasia An Educated People Soviet educational programs raised regions literacy rate to 99%

population was mostly illiterate before 1917 workers were educated in order to perform modern industrial tasks Hospitality A supra is a Georgian dinner party (the word means tablecloth) includes cold dishes, hot courses, fruit, dessert diners make many toasts (short speeches) before drinking Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 Section-3

Central Asia Soviet officials drew borders in Central Asia that are making it difficult for the regions new leaders to establish stability. Central Asians have preserved many cultural traditions despite decades of colonization. Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 Section-3 3 Central Asia

A Historical Crossroads The Silk Road Central Asia today is five independent republics Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan Around 100 B.C. caravans begin crossing region on horses, camels Silk Roadtrade route from Mediterranean from China caravans carry silk, gold, ivory, jade, spices, linens, perfumes 4,000-mile journey through cities like Samarqand, Bukhoro In 14th century, cheaper sea routes replace use of Silk Road Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16

3 A Historical Crossroads {continued} The Great Game In 1800s, Britain, Russia compete to control areathe Great Game Britain wants to protect its Indian colony from Russian expansion young officers on both sides travel region in disguise make maps, try to win local leaders over to their side By 1900, Russia controls Central Asia USSR controls region from 1920s until 1991 Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16

An Uncertain Future Nuclear Testing Semey (Semipalatinsk), Kazakhstan, used for nuclear testing from 1949 to 1989, 470 nuclear devices set off at Polygon site Residents exposure to radiation causes long-term health problems rates of leukemia, thyroid cancer, birth defects rise Petroleum and Prosperity Potential oil and gas wealth in Caspian, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan new Great Game as foreign nations compete for oil profits Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography

Chapter 16 Cultures Divided and Conquered Soviets Form Nations USSR made 5 nations out of Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks drew borders to deliberately create ethnic minority groups encouraged ethnic tensions to prevent opposition to Soviet rule For example, today Uzbeks form 24% of Tajikistan Uzbek cities Samarqand, Bukhoro have large Tajik populations Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16

Cultures Divided and Conquered {continued} Language and Religion Most are Muslim, speak languages related to Turkish many still speak Russian; former official language of USSR Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next Geography Chapter 16 The Survival of Tradition Nomadic Heritage Nomadspeople with no permanent home, few possessions move themselves and their animals with the seasons seek food, water, grazing land

Soviets forced most of regions nomads into collective farms Some nomads remain in Central Asias grasslands in the summer, herders set up tents near Lake Song-Kl, Kyrgyzstan Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company ContinuedNext Geography Chapter 16 The Survival of Tradition {continued} Yurts Yurtsnomads light, portable tents made of felt with wood frames Interiors decorated with woven reed mats, wooden saddles, daggers hand-woven carpets are famous for designs, colors

Preserving Traditions As nomadic lifestyle fades, some Kyrgyzstan shepherds house tourists tourists pay to experience nomadic lifestyles, traditions shepherds families have new source of income Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • India Online INFORMATION NOTE December 2014 The name

    India Online INFORMATION NOTE December 2014 The name

    JEE - Registered highest ever registrations for the JEE-2013 exams. AIEEE-The number of applicants in AIEEE-2012 were 1.3 million, in 2011- 1.1 million. GATE - A total of 12,00,728 candidates registered for GATE 2013 and 9,84,855 candidates appeared for the...
  • Slides course emerging markets - My LIUC

    Slides course emerging markets - My LIUC

    EMERGING MARKETS. Emerging markets are countries in which the pro-capita income is low . But it is growing strongly…even the growth from an average of 6,2% in the past decade, it has been only 4% in 2015. Emerging markets represents...
  • Finance Topic:Budget Balances and Errors

    Finance Topic:Budget Balances and Errors

    Account, Cost Code 1, and Cost Code 3 don't affect association The association is based on the combination of Fund—Source—Dept—Program (if used) listed in the table Associated Revenue
  • City of Houston Comprehensive Disparity Study EDUCATE. C

    City of Houston Comprehensive Disparity Study EDUCATE. C

    Evaluation of the dollar threshold for regulated and goal-oriented contracts. Explore participation as well as availability and utilization of certified firms for Purchase Orders under $50K.
  • CMC EPIDURAL MANAGEMENT Epidural Catheter Physiology:  Catheter threaded

    CMC EPIDURAL MANAGEMENT Epidural Catheter Physiology: Catheter threaded

    Injury to spinal cord can paralyze patient. Epidural Line/Site/Dressing Care: Dressing to remain clean, dry, intact. Occlusive dressing mandatory. Place Anticoagulation sticker on dressing if patient is on anticoagulation therapy and cover w/ tegaderm. Document Assessments in .
  • CHAPTERS 9 What does Assef give Amir for

    CHAPTERS 9 What does Assef give Amir for

    What does Assef give Amir for his birthday? Why is this significant? What does Amir put under Hassan's mattress? Why does he do it? What is yourreaction to Amir's betrayal? When Baba confronts Hassan about this, what does Hassan say?...
  • Norwegian school of economics - NHH

    Norwegian school of economics - NHH

    Finance is one of the most popular master programs around the world, thanks to historically outstanding career opportunities. The Finance specialisation prepares you well for a wide range of careers within financial services, consulting and auditing.
  • Pr

    Pr

    FORM-the poem is written in irregular stanzas of free verse. It is in first person narrative. It is suggested that he/she is speaking for all horse whisperers. LANGUAGE-emotional language- shows how attached the horse whisperer is to the horses. Metaphor...