1890 to 1917 Progressives were reformers who attempted
1890 to 1917 Progressives were reformers who attempted to solve problems caused by industry, growth of cities and laissez Progressives were White Protestants Middle class and native born. College Educated Professionals Social workers Scholars Politicians Preachers
Teachers Writers Reform = Progress Always possible and good Progress not inevitable but blocked by ignorance and corruption Everyone / everything can be improved Traditions = automatically suspect Experts can ALWAYS find one best way Education & Purity always = progress. Mission = Progress for world
When did the movement begin? Farmers organize during the 1870s The Grange1867---local level Farmers Alliance---state level Populist Party--national level Peoples Party Adopt Populist Ideas Move away from laissez faire with government regulating industry Make US government responsive to the people (voting) Limit power of the political bosses. Improve workers rights, conditions for poor and immigrants
Clean up the cities Populists vs Progressives Populists---rural Progressives---cities Populists were poor and uneducated Progressives were middle-class and educated. Populists were too radical Progressives stayed political mainstream. Populists failed
Areas to Reform Social Justice Political Democracy Economic Equality Conservation Social Justice Improve working conditions in industry, regulate unfair business practices, eliminate child labor, help immigrants and the poor Political Democracy
Give the government back to the people, get more people voting and end corruption with political machines. Economic Justice Fairness and opportunity in the work world, regulate unfair trusts and bring about changes in labor. Demonstrate to the common people that U.S. Government is in charge and not the industrialists.
CONSERVATION Preserve natural resources and the environment MUCKRAKERS Muckrakers were journalists and photographers who exposed the abuses of wealth and power. They felt it was their job to write and expose corruption in industry, cities and government. Progressives exposed corruption but offered no solutions.
They believed that if the public could only see or read for itself.. There would be an outcry and people would want to help make conditions better.. Or demand the government to make reforms. Digging up the dirt = Investigative Journalism Goal: to improve working conditions, regulate unfair business practices, eliminate child labor, end segregation, assimilate
immigrants and help the poor. Goal: Reform local and state governments by introducing direct involvement of the people. At the national level, womens suffrage and direct election of the U.S. Senate Fairness and opportunity in the work world, regulate unfair trusts and bring about changes in labor. Demonstrate to the common people that U.S. Government is in charge and not the industrialists.
Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt 1901 to 1909 William Howard Taft 1909 to 1913 1912 Election Woodrow Wilson 1913 to 1921 Muck Muck raker raker Thomas
Nast Jacob Riis John Spargo Upton Sinclair Work Political Cartoons How the Other Half
Lives (1890) Subject Political corruption Tweed was convicted of embezzlement and by NYC's political died in prison. machine, Tammany Hall, led by Boss Tweed. Living conditions of the urban poor; focused on tenements.
The Bitter Cry of the Child labor in the factories and education for Children children. The Jungle (1906) Results Investigated dangerous working conditions and unsanitary procedures in the meat-packing industry.
NYC passed building codes to promote safety and health. Ending child labor and increased enrollment in schooling. In 1906 the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act were passed Social Reformers SOCIAL GOSPEL
Jane Addams Margaret Sanger Pioneer in the field of social work who founded the settlement house movement through the establishment of Hull House in Chicago, Illinois. Educated urban poor about the benefits of family planning through birth control. She founded the organization that became Planned Parenthood.
Muck raker Frank Norris Ida Tarbell Work Subject Results
The Octopus (1901) This fictional book exposed monopolistic railroad practices in California. In Northern Securities v. U.S. (1904), the holding company controlling railroads in the
Northwest was broken up. "History of Standard Oil Company" in McClure's Magazine (1904) Exposed the ruthless tactics of the Standard Oil Company through a series of articles published in
McClure's Magazine. In Standard Oil v. U.S. (1911), the company was declared a monopoly and broken up. Muck raker WorkSocial Subject Reformers Booker T.
Washington Results Former slave who founded the Tuskegee Institute that focused on teaching AfricanAmericans trade skills to earn a living and gain the trust of white society. Provided statistics on the lynching of African-Americans. NAACP joined the fight for Federal antilynching legislation. Muck raker
WorkSocial Subject Reformers Results W.E.B. Harvard-educated professor who focused on the DuBois, need for a traditional liberal arts education for Founder of the African-Americans who could then insist upon equal treatment and rights from white society. NAACP Ida B. Wells
A Red Record (1895) Provided statistics on the lynching of African-Americans. NAACP joined the fight for Federal anti-lynching legislation. social reality After Reconstruction, there were several ways that Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities. Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites
from blacks and kept African Americans as 2nd class citizens and from voting. poll taxes literacy tests social reality Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 Supreme Court legalized segregation throughout the nation. Separate but Equal as long as
public facilities were equal Problem: Black facilities never equal to White Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 US would be segregated until the 1960s. Booker T. Washington
How do Black Americans overcome segregation? Southern Perspective Former slave Wrote a book/ Up From Slavery Dont confront segregation head on Before you are considered equal in society--must be self sufficient like most Americans Stressed vocational education for Black Americans Gradualism and economic self-
Speech given by Booker T. Washington in Atlanta, Sept. 18, 1895, at the Atlanta World Booker T. Exposition. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, was a black leader in education in the South. Many of those who viewed this speech saw it as a willingness on the part of Washington to accept social inequality in return for economic equality and security for W.E.B. Dubois How do Black Americans overcome
segregation? Northern Perspective Fought for immediate Black equality in society Talented 10%: Demanded the top 10% of the talented Black population be placed into the power positions Gain equality by breaking into power structure Founder of NAACP National Association for the Begins in 1906 in a meeting at Niagara Falls, Canada in opposition
to Booker T. Washingtons philosophy of accepting segregation. 1. Encourage of Black pride 2. Uncompromising demand for full political and civil equality 3. No acceptance of segregation----opposed Booker T. Washingtons gradualism. 4. Gain acceptance of white reformers. 5. Formation of the NAACP in 1906 with Dubois as the editor of the NAACPs journal, The Crisis 6. Other Black groups formed to support Dubois, Improving Conditions for African Americans Lynching Ida Wells The Red Record.
Souths Backlash1 Lynchings of Whites/Blacks 0 to 20 20 to 60 60 to 100 100 to 200 200 or more City Reforms City
Commissioner Plan City Manager Plan Cities hired experts in different fields to run a single aspect of city government. For example, the sanitation commissioner would be in charge of garbage and sewage removal. A professional city manager is hired to run each department of the city and report directly to the city council.
State Reforms Recall Initiative Referendum Secret Ballot Direct Primary Allows voters to petition to have an elected representative removed from office. Allows voters to petition state legislatures in order to consider a bill desired by citizens.
Allows voters to decide if a bill or proposed amendment should be passed. Privacy at the ballot box ensures that citizens can cast votes without party bosses knowing how they voted. Ensures that voters select candidates to run for office, rather than party bosses. 1790 to 1828 Caucus---small group of individuals who Caucus would choose a candidate
1828 to 1900 Convention---members from the Convention political parties nominate a candidate Current System Direct Primary---allow registered voters PrimaryUsed to participate in choosing a candidate Which of these nominating processes would be the most democratic way to nominate candidates and narrow the field of candidates for the general election?
electoral NATIONAL LEVEL 17th Amendment: Direct Election of Senators (1913) Increased voters power and reduced corruption in Senate NATIONAL LEVEL 19th Amendment Womens Suffrage (1920) Women won the
right to vote Preparing the Way for Suffrage American women activists first demanded the right to vote in 1848 at the Seneca Falls Convention in New York. The movement eventually split into two groups: The National Woman Suffrage Association fought for a
constitutional amendment for suffrage. The American Woman Suffrage Association worked to win voting rights on the state level. In 1890, Wyoming entered the union and became the first state to grant women the right to vote. In 1872, in an act of civil disobedience, a suffrage leader, Susan B. Anthony, insisted on voting in Rochester, New York. She was arrested for this act. Suffragist Strategies NWSA AWSA Constitutional Amendment
Individual State Suffrage Winning suffrage by a constitutional amendment The first federal amendment was introduced in Congress in 1868 and stalled. In 1878, suffragists introduced a new amendment. Stalled again, the bill was not debated again until 1887. It was defeated by the Senate. The bill was not debated again until 1913. Winning suffrage state by
state State suffrage seemed more successful than a constitutional amendment. Survival on the frontier required the combined efforts of men and women and encouraged a greater sense of equality. Western states were more likely to allow women the right to vote.
A New Generation Womens Suffrage Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, leaders of the suffrage movement, died without seeing the victory of womens suffrage. At the turn of the century, Carrie Chapman Catt became the leader of the National American Woman
Suffrage Association (NAWSA). She led the movement from 1900 to 1904 and again after 1915. In March 1913 Alice Paul and Lucy Burns organized a parade of 5,000 women in Washington, D.C. 19th Amendment provides full suffrage to women in all the states, 1920.
18th Amendment: Prohibition (1919) Banned manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages Movement begins at the local, state levels and eventually effects the national level.. WCTU or Womens Christian Temperance Union founded in 1874 in Cleveland, Ohio Frances Willard Carrie Nation Anna Howard Shaw Anti-Saloon League Founded in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874, it used educational, social, and political
means to promote legislation which dealt with issues ranging from health and hygiene, prison reform and world protection of women and children at home andpeace. work women's right to vote shelters for abused women support from labor movements such as the Knights of Labor
the eight-hour work day equal pay for equal work founding of kindergartens assistance in founding of the PTA federal aid for education stiffer penalties for sexual crimes against girls and women uniform marriage and divorce laws Founded in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874, it used educational, social, and political means to promote legislation which dealt with issues ranging from health and hygiene, prison and world
prison reform, policereform matrons and women police peace. officers homes and education for wayward girls pure food and drug act legal aid world peace Opposed and worked against the drug traffic the use of alcohol and tobacco white slavery and child labor army brothels
Most successful work was in alerting the nation of the evils of alcohol and promoting legislation to outlaw it. Passage of the 18th Amendment in 1919 to outlaw alcohol. Most successful and well known WCTU reformer was Carrie Nation. She would march into a bar and sing and pray, while smashing bar fixtures and stock with a hatchet.
Between 1900 and 1910 she was arrested some 30 times, and paid her jail fines from lecture-tour fees and sales of souvenir hatchets. Changed her name to Carry A. Nation and referred to herself as A Home Defender. Progressive Era Federal Legislation National Reclamation Act (1902)
Roosevelt Elkins Act (1903) Roosevelt Pure Food and Drug Act (1906/1911) Roosevelt Meat Inspection Act (1906) Roosevelt
Encouraged conservation by allowing the building of dams and irrigations systems using money from the sale of public lands. Outlawed the use of rebates by railroad officials or shippers. Required that companies accurately label the ingredients contained in processed food items. In direct response to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, this law required that meat processing plants be inspected to ensure the use of good meat and health-minded procedures. Progressive Era Federal Legislation
Hepburn Act (1906) Roosevelt Federal Reserve Act (1913) Wilson Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) Wilson Federal Trade Act (1914)
Wilson Strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission, allowing it to set maximum railroad rates. Created 12 district Federal Reserve Banks, each able to issue new currency and loan member banks funds at the prime interest rate, as established by the Federal Reserve Board. Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by outlawing the creation of a monopoly through any means, and stated that unions were not subject to antitrust legislation. Established the Federal Trade Commission,
charged with investigating unfair business practices including monopolistic activity and inaccurate product labeling. Square Deal TR believed in the capitalistic system but believed that the system must be regulated by US Govt. TR was a Hamiltonian but for the betterment of the common man as opposed to benefit the elite. TR believed the U.S. Government was running the country and not the rich and corrupt industrialists. U.S. Government involvement with regulatory
agencies.Similar to checks and balances Square Deal Reforms of the Progressives start with President Roosevelt. Areas which he wanted to reform and use the bully pulpit of the Presidency were the following: Bad Trusts vs. Good Trusts Take the side of labor Railroads Limiting corruption in the workplace Conservation
TR, the Trustbuster Department of Labor Bureau of Corporations Filed more than 40 antitrust suits using the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. Northern Securities Standard Oil Swift Beef Anthracite 1903 Coal Strike Union wanted shorter days and higher wages and owners would not negotiate. Winter, nation needed coal to heat homes.
TR calls a White House Conference. TR threatens to send in troops to run mines Owners back down and TR becomes the hero of the common working man. Importance: First time US Govt. took the side of labor in a dispute. Reading The Jungle, TR brought about reform in proposing and signing into law the Meat Inspection Act, 1906 All meat sold must inspected Must be marked by
Federal inspectors and graded. Meat industry cleaned up. Fish is regulated. Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906 Federal inspection to all packaged foods and drugs. Labels with medicine as well as food. Contents of food and drug packages must be listed All additives/chemicals
must be listed on labels. FDA today or Food and Drug Administration Railroad Reforms to boost the Interstate Commerce Commission. Elkins Act Anti-Rebate Act or AntiKick Back Act Regulates common carriers of people and freight, UPS, Greyhound, Amtrak, etc. Hepburn Act Regulates rates for passengers and freight
Air travel cost controls Air freight price controls TRs Conservation Policy 125,000 acres in reserve National Reclamation Act 1902 25 water projects Founding of the National Park System Federal Childrens Bureau Creation of a Dept. of Labor 8 hr. workday Mann-Elkins Act
Goodness gracious, I must have been dozing Aligns with Conservative Republicans and splits with Roosevelts Progressives. TR runs against Taft for the Republican nomination. TR is not nominated for the Republican nomination because the Conservatives supported Taft. Ballinger-Pinochet
quarrel, Sec. of the Interior Ballinger opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to development Angered TR's proconservation stand. The Progressive Party & Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelts Campaign Slogan New Nationalism: Favored an active government role in economic and social affairs. Good vs. bad trusts which were
regulated by the U.S. Govt. Continuation of his Square Deal policies. Direct Election of Senators Tariff reduction Presidential primaries Regulation of monopolies End child labor Womens suffrage New Freedom Goal: Favored an active role in economic and social affairs.
Favored small businesses and the free functioning and unregulated and unmonopolized markets. Tackle the triple wall of privilege: privilege the tariff, the banks, and the trusts. 1. Similar to Roosevelts New Nationalism. New Nationalism Goal: Continuation of his Square Deal which were reforms
to help the common man. Favored a more active govt role in economic and social affairs. 1. Good trusts vs. bad trusts 2. Direct election of senators 3. Tariff reduction 4. Presidential primaries 5. Regulation of monopolies 6. End child labor 7. Initiative and referendum 8. Womens suffrage Wilsons Slogan New Freedom: Freedom restore the
free competition and equal opportunity but not through big government. Tackle the triple wall of privilege: privilege the tariff, the banks, and the trusts. Wilson passes quite a bit of legislation which was similar to Roosevelts New Nationalism. Federal Trade Commission 16th Amendment Progressive Wilsons time is Movement ends in devoted to the Underwood Tariff Bill
1917 with US WWI instead of the Federal Reserve Act entrance into WWI Progressive Reforms. Clayton Anti-Trust Act Keating-Owen Act Wilsons New Freedom Underwood Tariff 1913 Wilson KeatingOwen
Act 1916 Wilson Substantially reduced import fees and enacted a graduated income tax (under the approval of the recent 16th Amendment Enacted by U.S. Congress which sought to address the perceived evils of child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods manufactured by children. Signed into law by President Wilson. Act declared unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court
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