Chapter 2: Using Context Clues and Word Parts

Chapter 2: Using Context Clues and Word Parts

Chapter 2: Using Context Clues and Word Parts Active Reading Skills, 2/e Kathleen McWhorter Brette McWhorter Sember PowerPoint by Gretchen Starks-Martin What is Context? The words around the word you want to learn provide context clues to define the

words meaning. Example: During the lecture, the ornithologist described his research on western spotted owls as well as many other species of birds. Types of Context Clues 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. Definition Clues Synonym Clues Example Clues Contrast Clues Inference Clues Definition Clues

A writer defines a word immediately following its use. Words and phrases are used such as: means, is, refers to, and can be defined. Example: A prosthesis is an artificial replacement for a missing body part,

such as an eye, a limb, or a heart valve. Definition Clues

Punctuation often signals a clue. Commas, parentheses, and dashes are often used. Example: Glen was especially interested in nephology, a branch of meteorology that deals with clouds. Example: Middle age (35-65 years) is a time for strengthening and maintaining lifes goals. Example: Many societies are patriarchal males exert dominant power and authority.

Synonym Clues A writer provides a word or brief phrase that is close in meaning. The synonym may appear in the same sentence or in a later sentence. Examples of Synonym Clues The author purposely left the ending of his novel ambiguous, or unclear, so

readers would have to decide for themselves what happened. After the soccer match, a melee broke out in the parking lot. Three people were injured in the brawl, and several others were arrested. Example Clues

A writer often includes examples that help to explain or clarify a word. They use words and phrases such as: to illustrate, for instance, for example, such as, and including. Example: Microscopic pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, constantly threaten our health as we go about our daily lives.

Contrast Clues It is sometimes possible to determine the meaning of an unknown word from a word or phrase that has an opposite meaning. Example: At the wedding reception, the parents of the bride seemed to welcome all the attention whereas the grooms parents eschewed it by staying at their table.

Inference Clues Many times you can figure out the meaning of an unknown word by using logic and reasoning skills. Example: Langston Hughes was a protean writer; although he is known mainly for his poetry, he also wrote plays, novels, short stories, childrens books, songs, and essays.

What Are Word Parts? Prefixes beginning of a word Suffixes end of a word Roots the core of a words meaning; usually combined with a suffix and/or prefix Example of Word Parts The parents thought their child was unteachable.

(Prefix) un = not (Root) teach = help someone learn (Suffix) able = able to do something Unteachable = not able to be taught Prefixes - Beginnings of Words

Prefixes + Root = New Word dis + respect = disrespect Meaning: not + respect = lack of respect See Table 2-1 for Common Prefixes Roots Core Meaning of Words Root dic/dict means tell or say.

Dictate = to speak for someone to write down Dictionary = a book that tells what words mean See Table 2-2 for Common Roots Roots When you see a word you dont know: 1. Look for the root first. 2. Keep in mind that the spelling of a root may change a bit if it is

combined with a suffix. Suffixes Word Endings Root + Suffix = New Word

class + ify = classify (verb) class + ic + classic (adjective) class _ ification = classification (noun) See Table 2-3 for Common Suffixes Evaluating Your Progress Use the Vocabulary module in the Reading Skills section on the MyReadingLab Web site at http:// www.ablongman.com/myreadinglab.

For extra practice visit the Companion Web site. http://www.ablongman.com/mcwhorter

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