Ch. 2: Europeans Colonize North America, 16001650 Interaction
Ch. 2: Europeans Colonize North America, 16001650 Interaction between Europe, Africa, and Western Hemisphere accelerates Compare/contrast colonies established by Spanish, French, Dutch, and English Profit quest and competition still central
I. Spanish, French, and Dutch North America Spain found first permanent colonies St. Augustine founded (1565) to protect Spanish treasure fleets Franciscans try conversion of Indians,
with mixed success I. Spanish, French, and Dutch North America (contd.) French founded Quebec (1608) and Montreal (1642) Control St. Lawrence River and access to
interior / Focus on fur trade Like Spanish, mostly men migrate and are few in number I. Spanish, French, and Dutch North America (contd.) Like French, Dutch focus on fur trade and
send only a few men to settlements Found Albany (1614) on Hudson River and New Amsterdam (1624) on Manhattan Island Map 2-1 p38
II. Englands America Initial motive same as others (profit) Unlike others, England send many men and women who intended to stay Establish farming colonies II. Englands America (contd.)
Late 1500s, Puritans form Purify Church of England of Catholic aspects and incorporate Protestant ideas III. The Founding of Virginia English finance colonization via joint-stock companies
Virginia Co. (1606) found Jamestown (1607) III. The Founding of Virginia (cont'd.) Immediate trouble drought, disease, and death
16071624: 8,000 migrate; 1,300 survive Powhatans help key to colonys early survival III. The Founding of Virginia (cont'd.) Tobacco Cultivation
Bring key changes Save colony with profitable export product and shift Virginia to agrarian settlement But tobacco need lots of land and labor III. The Founding of Virginia (cont'd.)
End of Virginia Company As incentives to migrate, Co. offers Headright system (1617) House of Burgesses (1619) Virginia survives, but Co. collapses (1624) & becomes royal colony
Unlike other European colonies, more local self-government in English colonies p42 IV. Life in the Chesapeake Maryland founded (1634) = first colony with
religious freedom (haven for Catholics) Demand for Laborers For labor, two colonies rely on indentured servants from England Mostly men move; gender imbalance (1600s) IV. Life in the Chesapeake
(cont'd.) Conditions of Servitude Indenture contract and freedom dues Difficult life (disease, harsh discipline) Standard of Living Families unstable because few females and high mortality rate for adults and children
Chesapeake Politics Most settlers immigrants create political instability Figure 2-1 p46 V. The Founding of New England
Contrasting Regional Demographic Patterns: different environment
older settlers more families and women migrate as community groups Separatists Separatists found Plymouth (1620)
Pilgrims Mayflower Compact: seek Pilgrim control via self-government Map 2-2 p47
V. The Founding of New England (cont'd.) Governor John Winthrop Winthrop assume MA will be hierarchical Assert communal religious goal Strive for public good, not private advance
Covenant Ideal Contract with God and each other Like Virginia, MA voters must be (1) male, (2) own property, and (3) church member V. The Founding of New England
(cont'd.) New England Towns Towns hierarchical, but all men get land New England settlement more compact than Chesapeake Increase in settlers (163638) lead to Connecticut, New Haven, and New Hampshire
George Henry Boughton, The Early Puritans of New England Going to Church, 1867 V. The Founding of New England (cont'd.) Pequot War and its Aftermath
expansion increase tension with Native Americans (Pequots) Puritans not respect Indian land claims Tension result in war (1637) p53
VI. Life in New England New England Families No gender imbalance because many families, including women, migrate Greater natural increase; less disease than Chesapeake
Result = parents exert more control over offspring VI. Life in New England (cont'd.) Labor in a New Land Subsistence and home economies with family
labor, but slavery existed Impact of Religion No freedom of religion All must attend church and taxed to support church, but voting limited to members
Roger Williams found Rhode Island (1636), allows religious freedom Anne Hutchinson (1630s)
challenges Puritan orthodoxy and male superiority VII. The Caribbean Sugar Cultivation Global exchange: big European demand for tea and coffee (Asia) and sugar (Caribbean)
Use enslaved Africans as labor for sugar & expand slave trade Barbados (1680) most profitable British Colony Map 2-3 p55 p56
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