Transitional Justice Working Group Initiative The Road to

Transitional Justice Working Group Initiative The Road to

Transitional Justice Working Group Initiative The Road to Peace in Liberia: Citizens Views on Transitional Justice August-September, 2004 GREENBERG QUINLAN ROSNER RESEARCH INC SUBAH-BELLEH ASSOCIATES A New Liberia I appeal to the government that let this new Liberia be a new Liberia and what has happened should be in the past. Everybody should be given rights and let us build a new Liberia. - Female, Nimba County Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 2 Country Direction 60 51 45

40 20 0 Right direction Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 3 Wrong direction Bryant Job Approval 80 69 60 40 25 20 33 17 0 Approve Disapprove

Strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 4 Somewhat Thermometer Ratings: Government Mean Score on a Scale from 0-100 60 40 56 55 20 19 18 17 LURD GOL MODEL 0

Gyude Bryant Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 5 National Transitional Government Faction Leaders in Transitional Government 60 49 46 40 39 20 22 0 Approve Disapprove Strongly Liberia August/September 2004

Figure # 6 Somewhat Effectiveness of DDRR 80 79 60 40 20 17 42 7 0 Effective Ineffective Strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 7 Somewhat

Duration of Peace 100 80 97 93 89 60 40 20 3 3 9 0 National Excombatants Long-lasting peace Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 8 Return to conflict soon

IDPs Progress Made Decrease in number of guns on the street 59 55 Peace in Liberia Freedom to express yourself 90 84 48 Freedom to move about the country 55 83 34 Decrease in violence Respect between different tribes Liberia

August/September 2004 Figure # 9 92 77 26 0 62 20 40 60 Much Some 80 100 Economic Progress Improvement of the economy 7 25

5 Increase in jobs 0 19 10 20 Much Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 10 Some 30 Concerns Education 61 Health care 35 Unemployment 31

Poverty 54 23 Corruption 11 Human rights 10 7 HIV AIDS 6 Ex-combatants 4 Ritual killings Tribalism 4 3 Drugs Crime 2 0

Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 11 20 40 60 80 DDRR Process 60 54 40 20 20 28 24 10 0 Too slowly Right pace

Strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 12 Somewhat Too quickly Liberian Government Efforts 80 60 64 40 27 20 16 34 26 13 0 Toward Non-combatants

Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 13 Too much Toward Excombatants Right amount Too little UNMIL Efforts 60 51 40 41 25 20 33 30 10 0 Toward Non-combatants Liberia August/September 2004

Figure # 14 Too much Toward Excombatants Right amount Too little Justice System 50 48 40 43 30 20 10 0 Working well Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 15 Not working well Progress in Justice Issues

Return of a national justice system 16 Improvement of national justice 47 14 0 38 10 20 30 Much Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 16 Some 40

50 Thermometer Ratings: TRC Mean Score on a Scale from 0-100 60 40 56 55 Truth and Reconciliation Commission National Transitional Government 20 0 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 17 War Experiences 85 76 72 Forced to leave your home and live elsewhere Lost contact with a close relative

A member of your family killed 60 Felt humilitaed 41 35 Forced to help a militia in other ways than fighting Tortured 21 Wounded by fighting 11 Forced to become a combatant 7 Raped by combatant 4 Kidnapped or taken hostage 0 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 18 20 40 60 80 100

Dealing With the Past 100 78 80 60 40 22 62 20 17 0 It is more important to put the past behind us. Strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 19 It is more important to hold people accountable for abuses during the war Somewhat Prosecution of War Figures 80

59 60 44 40 22 52 20 35 15 0 Faction leaders Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 20 Excombatants Prosecute, strongly Soldiers under age 18 Prosecute, somewhat

Addressing the War and Abuses For those willing to admit their crimes, there would be no formal legal proceedings or prosecution. For those unwilling to admit to crimes, there would be formal legal proceedings and prosecution 35 Only target leaders and commanders of warring factions identified as committing or ordering abuses, and subject them to formal legal action and prosecution. 59 41 Confront and document the abuses through a written record, but without identifying individuals responsible for the abuses and without holding formal legal proceedings and prosecutions 22 41 25 Prosecute excombatants and leaders of warring factions who committed abuses, but avoid widespread public discussion about the abuses

0 38 20 Approve strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 21 55 40 Approve somewhat 60 Actions for Peace and Reconciliation 70 Create a written record of all the abuses that happened during the war Create a special court to prosecute faction leaders and punish those found guilty of committing human rights violations 61 74 57 Create a truth crime tribunal where people

can tell their stories about what they did during the war without fear of prosecution Give amnesty to all combatants who turn in their weapons 44 Give amnesty to all combatants who turn in their weapons, including faction leaders 45 Create a special court to prosecute combatants and punish those found guilty of committing human rights violations 48 Jail faction leaders for crimes committed during the war 46 74 73 67 61 59 26 Jail combatants for crimes committed during the war

0 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 22 78 40 20 40 Very important 60 Somewhat important 80 Written Record Quote If there is no record, no advice will be given and I will continue to do it [crimes]. So at least if we can forgive we shouldnt forget our records, so when it has been written and documented, you know what is wrong and cant do it in the future. - Female, Bong County Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 23

Eligible for Amnesty 80 73 61 60 44 43 21 18 40 20 0 36 Excombatants who have turned in their weapons Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 24 28 All Excombatants

Approve strongly Faction leaders and commanders, even those that ordered combatants to kill, rape and torture civilians during the war Approve somewhat Faction leaders and commanders Granting Amnesty Excombatants acknowledge crimes, ask for forgiveness 48 A civilian assisted a militia with food or shelter A combatant looted civilian houses 83 78 41 A combatant forced a civilian to fight 33 A combatant murdered a civilian

31 A combatant raped numerous civilians 31 A civilian provided a militia with guns and ammunition 30 A combatant forced numerous civilians to fight 27 A combatant murdered numerous civilians 25 A combatant raped a civilian 24 0 Grant, strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 25 86 54

67 61 60 59 63 58 59 20 40 Grant, somewhat 60 80 100 TRC Hearings 80 72 60 40 62 18

20 15 0 Public Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 26 Private Strongly Somewhat Current or New Courts to Judge War Abuses 80 66 60 40 20 23 47 19 0 New court

Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 27 Current court Strongly Somewhat Composition of Special Court Liberians or Foreigners? 80 63 60 40 22 51 20 0 8 5 12 Liberians Both

Strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 28 Somewhat Foreigners Foreigners in New Court Quote It is going to be Liberians who face the courts. If the judges are Liberians, they will want to back each other, but if a foreigner comes in the truth will be unveiled. - Female, Bong County Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 29 Thermometer Ratings: International Mean Score on a Scale from 0-100 100 80 60 40

88 88 86 84 UNMIL United Nations ECOWAS United States 78 20 0 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 30 Nigeria Need for the International Community 100 82

80 60 79 40 18 20 11 0 Liberia needs help from the Liberia can progress on its international community to own without the help of the make progress. international community Strongly Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 31 Somewhat Victims Compensation 34 Provided housing Financial compensation

28 17 Free education Provided jobs 7 Free medical services 6 0 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 32 10 20 30 40 Original Origins 80 Plan to Return 60

66 63 40 34 20 24 10 0 From county Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 33 Moved Forced to voluntarily move Yes No Home County Those that Moved Bong 20 17

Lofa Maryland 8 Sinoe 8 Grand Cape Mount 7 Grand Kru 7 Bomi 6 Nimba 6 5 Grand Bassa Grand Gedeh 3 Margibi

3 River Gee 3 Gbarpolu 2 Montserrado 2 Rivercess 2 0 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 34 10 20 30 Home County - IDPs 42

Lofa 15 Gbarpolu Bomi 14 10 Grand Cape Mt. 8 Bong Maryland 2 Grand Kru 2 Grand Bassa 2 Rivercess 2 Sinoe 1 Nimba 1

Montserrado 1 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 35 0 10 20 30 40 50 Excombatant Reintegration 100 80 60 82 68 62 40 20

29 28 8 0 National Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 36 5 IDPs Reintegrate 17 Depends 1 Excombatants Never Reintegrate Reintegration Quote They should be accepted because we are talking about forgiveness, healing, we are talking about being patriots and so we should accept them in the community .

- Male Community Leader, Monrovia Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 37 Reintegration Quote If I am not welcome, I will come back and ask you to carry me so as to talk to my people to forgive me because as we are talking about peace, everybody needs to forgive each other. - Bomi excombatant Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 38 Charles Taylor Committed War Crimes 80 75 60 40 20 10 0

Yes Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 39 No Taylor Punishment 29 Jail for life 22 Amnesty/forgiven 13 Jail less than life Death 7 Exiled from Liberia 7 No role in government 2

0 Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 40 10 20 30 October 2005 Elections 100 91 80 60 40 81 20 7 0 Favor Liberia

August/September 2004 Figure # 41 Oppose Strongly Somewhat Key Findings Liberians are optimistic about the future of Liberia and have seen progress made in many areas, but more needs to be done, especially in terms of economic conditions, education and the justice system. Liberians also feel that the government is doing too little, particularly in respect to non-combatants. While Liberians want to put the past behind them, this does not mean they want to forget about the past. Liberians are strongly in favor of having a written record. But a written record alone will not suffice. Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 42 Key Findings Holding truth crime tribunals where excombatants can publicly admit their wrongs without fear of retribution is the most approved manner to address the war. This was also strongly approved by excombatants, so would be the best mechanism to bring excombatants into the justice system. While most Liberians do not want to prosecute excombatants, there is a strong desire to prosecute faction leaders and commanders and hold them accountable. Liberians do not think the current court system can handle the

prosecutions of war crimes and desire a special court comprised of both Liberians and foreigners. Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 43 Key Findings Liberians think they can not go it alone and need assistance from the international community. There is also a strong desire to reintegrate excombatants back into their communities. Liberia August/September 2004 Figure # 44

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