Perception Illusion A false representation of the environment

Perception Illusion A false representation of the environment

Perception Illusion A false representation of the environment Perception Selection

Organization Interpretation Illusory Contours Perceived edges that do

not physically exist Visual system fills in the gaps Inspired Gestalt School: Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967)

Kurt Koffka (1886-1941) Gestalt Grouping Rules Perception: Selection Selective attention Cocktail party effect

The process whereby the brain sorts out, and only attends to, the important messages from the senses. Feature detectors Specialized cells in the brain that respond only to

certain sensory information. Based on experience. Habituation The tendency of the brain to ignore environmental factors that remain constant.

Perception: Organization Form Constancy Color Depth

Organization: Form Gestalt ability to perceive the whole stimulus rather than perceiving its

discrete part as separate entities good continuation Organization: Form

Figure and Ground see a main object relative to ground Organization: Form

Proximity items near each other are grouped together Organization: Form

Continuity perceive smooth as continuous patterns Organization: Form

Closure fill in the gaps Organization: Form Similarity

image chunks that are similar to each other will be grouped together Violations of Perceptual Organization by Form: Ambiguous Figure

Violations of Perceptual Organization by Form: Ambiguous Figure Violations of Perceptual Organization by Form: Impossible Figure

Violations of Perceptual Organization by Form: Impossible Figure Violations of Perceptual Organization by Form: Impossible Figure

Organization by Constancy Perceptual Constancy: the tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input

Size Shape Color Brightness Organization by Color

Trichromatic Theory: color perception results from mixing three distinct color systems - red, green, and blue Opponent-Process Theory: color perception is based on three systems of color

opposites - blue-yellow, red-green, and black-white Organization by Depth Depth Perception: the ability to see three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are in two dimensions

Binocular Cues Monocular Cues Depth Perception Binocular Cues: Retinal Disparity

Binocular Cues: Retinal Disparity Monocular Cue: Relative Size assuming same size can

discriminate distance Monocular Cue: Interposition blocked objects will appear closer

Monocular Cue: Relative Clarity hazy objects are perceived to be further away

Monocular Cue: Texture Gradient coarse objects are perceived as being closer Monocular Cue:

Relative Height higher objects are perceived to be farther away Monocular Cue: Relative Motion

nearer things are perceived to move faster Monocular Cue: Linear Perspectives more line convergence gives

the perception of greater distance Monocular Cue: Relative Brightness dimmer is perceived to be

farther away Perception: Interpretation Perceptual Adaptation we adapt to changes in perceptions

Perceptual Set previous experiences affect our perceptions Individual Motivation personal interests affect our perceptions

Frame of Reference perceptions change as context changes Object Recognition Nave Template Theory Visual object would have to match existing template to be perceived

Structural Description Theories Visual object is recognized by its specific parts and the relationships between its parts. Multiple Recognition Committees

Visual objects are recognized by multiple means simultaneously Grandmother Cell Theory Single cells are responsible for recognizing specific objects Nave Template Theory

Structural Description Theories Multiple Recognition Committees Grandmother Cell Theory

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