Water at the Well-Site: Production, Handling and Disposal
Water at the Well-Site: Production, Handling and Disposal John Walsh 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Background Conventional vs Unconventional Hydraulic Fracturing Conventional: Unconventional: Hydraulic fracturing has been practiced for decades: Economic development of
shales requires relatively new hydraulic fracturing techniques. Roughly 1 million wells have been hydraulically fractured in the US. Roughly 60,000 shale wells have been hydraulically fractured to date. 26-Oct 2015 Roughly 1.5 million
wells have been hydraulically fractured outside the US. USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 2 Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontal Wells A horizontal section is drilled which runs through the shale seam. Well is cased. Each "stage" (section) is isolated by plugs. Perforation and HF is
carried out from the toe to the heel one stage at a time. When all stages are HF, plugs are drilled out, production starts 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 3 Conventional vs Unconventional HF Flow Back: Example volumes and rate for conventional and unconventional Hydraulic fracturing 26-Oct 2015
USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 4 Conventional Produced Water Volumes vs Unconventional: world-wide oil: 80 MMBPD (13 M m3/day) world-wide produced water: 240 MMBWPD (38 M m3/day) US produced water: 7 bbl water / bbl oil water production from shales: 8 MMBWPD (1.3 M m3/day) 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 5
D&C Spend by Category average over several operators Ref: Robart, PacWest, DUG Conference, Brisbane (Aug, 2013) 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 6 Outline Water at the Well Site: Production, Handling and Disposal: What are the challenges? How much progress is being made? What have we learned so far? What can we expect in the future? 26-Oct 2015
USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 7 Water Management Cycle: Dispose/ Acquire Flowback Transport Recycle Stimulate Store 26-Oct 2015 174530SPE--MS Design and Installation of a Water
Management Infrastructure in the Cana Woodford USAEE / IAEE North American ConferenceShale D. Steven Tipton Early Days Frac Tanks & Trucks: Frac Tank: 500 Bbl; rental cost: 70 $ /day 26-Oct 2015 / IAEE North American Conference USAEE Truck: 110 Bbl: cost: 1 $/ bbl /hour Slide No. 9 Risk Assessment Matrix based on typical technology Hazards: 1: spill of transport load w/o chemicals
2: spill of conc biocide 4: rupture/spill of saddle tank diesel 6: spill or leak of well-site water storage tank 9: spill of HF backflow water 14: frac-to-frac communication 19: natural seep 20: gas emissions 21: no incidents ref: SPE 152596 King (2010) 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 10 Initial Marcellus Experience:
Operators did not manage water. Were "forced" to transport flow back water long distances to disposal wells in Ohio. Transportation cost: (1 USD / bbl / hour) x 10 hours = 10 USD / bbl (125 USD/ kL) Roughly 1,000 wells /yr x 20,000 bbl water per well = 20 million bbl water Roughly 200,000,000 USD /year spent on trucking Road Traffic Accident frequency: roughly one crash per 100 wells. Shift in mindset toward water o no longer an after-thought o created a staffing problem o exposed a long-standing competency problem o the first significant development 26-Oct 2015
USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Fresh Water vs Flow Back and Produced Water Lagoons: Depending on local regulations, fresh water lagoons usually do not require liners but in arid areas there will be substantial loss of water to the ground Flow back and produced water require liners. Each state has regulations regarding the number of liners and monitoring requirements (double liners with leak detection in between). 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 12 Above Ground Mobile / Modular Lagoon: Above ground storage tank fast installation
Typical up to 60,000 to 100,000 Bbl 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 13 Lay Flat Hose: Pressure rating: up to 200 psi Section length: 660 ft Lay-Down ~ 1 mile / hour Numerous service providers 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference
Pumps: Mobile booster pumps Ranging in size from 250 to 500 HP Together with 10 inch lay-flat can pump roughly 6 miles 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 15 Case Study Portion of South Scoop: Map to the right: o 45 shale producer wells o 7 x 500,000 Bbl fresh water pits o 2 x 500,000 + 2 x 50,000 bbl permitted flow back and produced water pits
o 58 miles of 12 inch SDR 11(Standard Dimension Ratio) HDPE Map Below: o 23 x 500,000 Bbl fresh water pits 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 16 Fluid Chemistry: What are the technology requirements and how do they fit into a water management plan? Waste Water Characteristics: High TSS (organic and inorganic suspended solids) High mineral TDS
High bacterial nutrient content Analogs: food & beverage, pulp & paper Highly variable and difficult to predict But all HF water treatment challenges are local & specific Disposal Options & Water Quality Requirements Recycle TSS removal, specific ion removal, TDS reduction in some cases Disposal well mild TSS reduction 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 17 Analogs in Water Treatment There are many well-known analogs for the fluids: food and beverage processing
pulp and paper starch manufacture HF flow back from conventional wells This experience points to: floc & drop / electrocoagulation mechanical vapor compression for modular & centralized facilities biotreatment for centralized facilities 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide 19
The Progression of Stages in HF Water Treatment: Centralized Processing In-Field Processing Mobile Units CWT / POTW Full Treating is an Option In-Field Development Modular Units Well clusters Full Treating is an Option Lower treatment cost
Higher gathering cost Requires a network Facilitates fill re-cycle In-Field Dist < 2 miles Near-Field 2 < Dist < 20 miles Centralized 20 miles < Dist Stranded Water Clustered Water Networked Water
26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Initial stage of field development: a few isolated well pads no water infrastructure Stranded Water 1st well: Producing wells HF flow back In-Field Processing Mobile Units 2nd well:
opportunity to recycle Disposal well Isolated and remote water treatment: Reduce or eliminate need for disposal Provide fracturing fluids for next well (recycling) Distance from well to treatment < 2 miles 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 21 Mobile Technology Fountain Quail / Aqua-Pure ROVER Mobile Clarifier TSS (solids and organics) are chemically precipitated. Solids settle for later collection. Capacity
is 10 kBWPD (7 BPM). GE Mobile Evaporation Truck-mounted MVR with horizontal shell in tube Hex. Capacity 1 BWPM. WaterTectonics & Halliburton electrocoagulation in mobile units. 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 22 Technology: What are the technology requirements and how do they fit into a water management plan? Requirements for Remote Application of Technology:
Simple easily operated, maintained, staffed Self sufficient equipment, spare parts, staff: all there Robust does not breakdown Deployable if it does breakdown, it can be easily fixed Many pieces to the puzzle: Oil sands company understood the fluid characteristics but not how to deploy in remote / stranded locations, nor how to deploy staff and spare parts Offshore HF flow back company understood deployment / remote operations, and how to keep it simple, but did not have the technology Industrial innovators had the technology but did not know how to deploy, nor the simplicity and robustness required All things considered, the pieces are there but rarely all in one place 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 23
Some in-field development: well clusters modular water treating units no water infrastructure In-Field Processing Modular Units Well clusters Full Treating is an Option Facilitates several disposal options Producing wells HF flow back Fast Line / Flexi-hose between holding ponds and wells
26-Oct 2015 Disposal well Modular water treatment: Larger than mobile; Requires set-up Reduces or eliminates need for disposal Provides fracturing fluids for next well (recycling) Distance fromNorth well American to treatment < few miles USAEE / IAEE
Slide No. 25 Centralized Processing CWT / POTW Full Treating is an Option Lower treatment cost Higher gathering cost Requires a network Facilitates full re-cycle Networked Water a few large scale treatment sites Centralized Distance to treatment facility > 20 miles
26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Water Treatment Cost Connectedness of Water System Number of Treatment Options Stranded Water Clustered Water Networked Water Cost Connectedness Number of Treatment Options
Field development timeline 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 27 Saline Tolerant HF Fluids: apid change in understanding and practice since 2012 Pressure from Operators has finally resulted in HF fluid packages that can tolerate saline recycle water: 2012: Chesapeake HPAM fracs: 8 wells in Marcellus, slickwater 100,000 mg/L TDS judged to be good fracs
26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 28 Saline Tolerant HF Fluids: XTO Energy / Halliburton (New Mexico): Make-up: 100 % recycle water, TDS ~ 270,000 mg/L cross-lined gel: CMHPG (carboxymethyl hydroxypropyl guar) Zirconium cross-linking agent EC treatment, no desalination Scale inhibitor used
Ref.: SPE 163824 (2013) 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 29 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide 30 Water Quality Requirements w/ high salinity brines: When high salinity brine can be used as makeup water, recycle water requires: Remove TSS
Remove OIW Remove Heavy metals No desalination required Much simpler treatment 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 31 Water Management Exercise: Using the cost model, decide: Where will the required water come from? How will the water be transported? How will the water be stored, in what capacity, how far from the wells? If flow back and produced water will be treated for reuse. If so, how, what capacity, etc?
Results: dramatic differences in strategy and costs salinity management (blending / treatment) is the key reluctance to use saline tolerant brines 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 32 Water Management Exercise Cost Model: 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide No. 33
What can we expect? Oil Price / Technology Development & Uptake: historical oil industry technology adoption current price environment a challenge enter into a period of much needed tech consolidation 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference 34 Summary and Conclusions: What are the challenges o Sourcing, storing, treating, disposing Progress & Learnings
o paradigm shift in mindset o revolutionary advancement in basic management technologies: (pumps, pipes, hose, tanks, etc) o salt tolerant brines are now an option o well site technologies some slow progress: very complex problem 26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference Slide 35 Water at the Well-Site: Production, Handling and Disposal John Walsh [email protected] 1-832-341-4419
26-Oct 2015 USAEE / IAEE North American Conference
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