nomen mihi est _________ Latin 3 Honors Spring Semester Exam Review May 2011 Stages 28-34 1. Name the parts of speech and define each. Noun names of things Pronoun takes the place of a noun Adjective defines a noun or pronoun Adverb describes the action of a verb Verb shows action or state of being
Preposition expresses relationship between 2 nouns Conjunction joins two sentences or phrases Interjection an exclamation 2. Name the 5 noun cases and the uses of each Nominative - subject, PN, PA Genitive - shows possession Dative - indirect object Accusative - direct object Ablative - special uses
3. How do you find the stem of a Latin noun? Drop the GENITIVE SINGULAR ending 4. How do you tell the declension to which a noun belongs? Look at the GENITIVE SINGULAR
1st = -ae 2nd = -i 3rd = -is 4th = -us 5th = -ei 5. What are the 1st declension noun endings? puella puellae puellae
puellam puell puellae puellarum puellis puellas puellis 6. What are the 2nd declension noun endings? amicus(puer,vir) amici
amico amicum amico amici amicorum amicis amicos amicis 7. What are the 3rd declension noun endings? mater
matris matri matrem matre matres matrum matribus matres matribus 8. How can you recognize a masculine, feminine, neuter noun in the 5 declensions? masculine
1st declension: P*A*I*N words 2nd declension: -us, -er, -ir in nominative singular 4th declension: -us in nominative, except domus, manus, etc. 5th declension: almost all are feminine except dies feminine 1st declension: almost all except P*A*I*N words 4th declension: domus, manus neuter
2nd declension: -um in nominative singular 3rd declension: -e, -al (mare, animal) 4th declension: -u in nominative (3rd declension is more difficult to tell) 9. State the overriding rule of neuter nouns. Neuter nouns always have the same spelling in the nominative and accusative cases. Neuter nouns always end in -a in the
nominative and accusative plurals. 10. Decline a 4th Declension Noun Masculine portus ports portu portum port ports portuum
cornua cornuum cornibus cornua cornibus 11. What are some fine points to remember about the 4th Declension Nouns? Most us 4th declension nouns are masculine, except for feminine nouns domus and manus. Most masculine nouns in 4th declension are made from the fourth principal parts of verbs. 4th declension nouns ending in -u in the
nominative are neuter. 12. Decline a 5th Declension Noun dis dii dii diem di dis dirum dibus
dis dibus 13. What are some fine points to remember about 5th declension nouns? All 5th declension nouns are feminine except for dies and its compounds There are no neuter nouns in the 5th declension. There are no adjectives in the 5th declension. 14. Pay special attention to:
dative indirect object Quintus rosam Metellae dedit. dative of advantage Metella Felici togam invenit. dative object of special verbs Caecilius Holconio favit. 15. In what ways do Latin nouns and the adjectives which modify them agree? Adjectives and the nouns they modify always agree in gender, number, and case.
The endings may not have the same spelling, but they are from the same gender, number and case locations on the endings charts. 16. What are the singular 1st and 2nd declension adjective endings? masculine singular feminine neuter
malus mali malo malum malo mala malae malae malam mala
malum mali malo malum malo 17. What are the Plural 1st and 2nd declension adjective endings? masculine mali malorum malis
malos malis plural feminine malae malarum malis malas malis neuter
mala malorum malis mala malis 18. Decline a 3rd Declension Adjective singular celer celeris celeri
celeribus celeres celeribus celeria celerium celeribus celeria celeribus 19. What are the 3 degrees of adjectives [and adverbs]?
positive happy comparative happier superlative happiest 20. Give an example and translation of a regular adjective in the 3 degrees. clarus,-a,-um clear clarior, clarius clearer clarissimus,-a,-um clearest (1st & 2nd Declension)
21. Give an example and translation of a regular adjective in the 3 degrees. celer, celeris, celere swift celerior, celerius swifter celerrimus,-a,-um swiftest (3rd Declension) 22. How is a 1st & 2nd declension adjective made into an adverb?
find the stem and add e clarus: clare pulcher: pulchre 23. Give examples of irregular adjectives in the comparative and superlative degrees. bonus melior optimus
good better best malus peior pessimus
bad worse worst magnus maior maximus great, large
greater, larger greatest, largest parvus peius minimus small smaller
smallest 24. How is a 3rd declension adjective made into an adverb? find the stem and add ter or iter celer: celeriter acer: acriter 25. Give an example and translation of a regular adverb in the 3 degrees.
clare clearly clarius more clearly clarissime most clearly 26. Irregular adverb in the 3 degrees. (positive degree ends in r) celeriter swiftly celerius more swiftly celerrime most swiftly
27. Irregular adverb in the 3 degrees. (stem changes) magne greatly maius more greatly maxime very greatly 28. Write the principal parts of porto, name the principal parts, find and name the stems, and show which tenses can be formed onto each stem. present
indicative porto present infinitive perfect indicative perf. pass participle
portare portavi portatus present perfect imperfect 29. How do you recognize the conjugation to which a verb belongs? Conjugation 1st Prin. Pt 1 -o nd
visus,-a,-um ductus,-a,-um captus,-a,-um auditus,-a,-um (Review of last 4 slides) 31. Write the principal parts of the following verbs:porto, video, duco, capio, audio porto video duco capio
audio portare videre ducere capere audire portavi vidi duxi cepi audivi
portatum visum ductum captum auditum 32. How do you recognize the present tense? verb looks more like the 1st principal part present stem + regular personal endings
33. Write the regular active personal endings o,m- I mus - WE s - YOU tis - YALL t - HE, she, it nt - THEY 34. What do you have to remember about the agreement between verbs and their
subjects? A verb and its subject agree in person and number 35. How do you translate the present tense (porto)? I carry I am carrying I do carry 36. Conjugate the following verbs in the present tense:
porto, video, duco, capio, audio singular plural 1st person 2nd person 3rd person (see next 5 slides for conjugations) porto I carry
porto portas portat 1st Conjugation portamus portatis portant video I see 2nd Conjugation
video videmus vides videtis videt vident duco I lead 3rd Conjugation duco ducimus ducis ducitis ducit ducunt
capio I take 3rd io Conjugation capio capimus capis capitis capit capiunt audio I hear 4th Conjugation
audio audimus audis auditis audit audiunt 37. Give the principal parts of the irregular verbs: sum, possum, volo, eo, and fero. sum, esse, fui possum, posse, potui volo, velle, volui eo, ire, ii(ivi), itum fero, ferre, tuli, latum 38. Conjugate the irregular verbs in the present tense.
sum eo possum fero volo See the following 5 slides sum I am sum
es est sumus estis sunt possum I am able possum potes potest
possumus potestis possunt volo I wish volo vis vult volumus vultis volunt
eo eo is it I go imus itis eunt
fero fero fers fert I bear, bring ferimus fertis ferunt 39. How do you recognize the imperfect tense?
ba just before the ending (=present stem + ba + personal endings) 40. How do you translate the imperfect tense (portabam)? I was carrying I used to carry I kept on carrying
41. Give examples of imperfect tense verbs. ambulabam I was walking portabamus we were carrying videbat - he was seeing ducebant they were leading capiebas you ware taking
audiebatis you all were hearing 42. Conjugate sum in the imperfect tense. eram - I was eramus - we were eras - you were eratis - yall were erat - he was erant - they were 43. How do you recognize the perfect tense? perfect stem any one of the
perfect endings 44. Write the perfect personal endings. i -I imus - we isti -you istis-yall it-he,she,it runt -they 45. How do you translate the perfect tense (portavi)? I carried
I have carried I did carry 46. Give the perfect tense forms of several regular and irregular verbs. Use the third person singular. porto --- portavit video ---vidit duco --- duxit capio ---cepit audio --- audivit sum --- fuit possum --- potuit volo --- voluit
eo --- iit (ivit) fero --- tulit 47. Define: Active Voice subject does the action of the verb Passive voice subject receives the action of the verb 48. Give the Passive Personal Endings.
-r -ris -tur -mur -mini -ntur Which tenses use these endings? Present, Imperfect, Future only 49. What is the major difference between active and passive Latin verb forms in the
present, imperfect, and future tenses? *The use of either the active personal endings or the passive personal endings makes these verbs either active or passive. *There are a few stem vowel changes, such as in the Future tense of 1st and 2nd conjugations, 2nd person singular: Vocaberis, moneberis 50. Conjugate porto in the present passive (indicative) tense.
portor portaris portatur portamur portamini portantur 51. Conjugate porto in the imperfect passive (indicative) tense. portabar portabaris
portabatur portabamur portabamini portabantur 52. Conjugate porto in the future passive (indicative) tense. portabor portaberis portabitur
portabimur portabimini portabuntur 53. How is the passive voice formed in the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses? Perfect Passive Participle + a form of sum: Perfect Tense = PPP + sum in the present tense Pluperfect Tense = PPP + sum in the imperfect tense Future Perfect Tense
= PPP + sum in the future tense 54. Conjugate porto in the Perfect Passive (indicative), with English portatus sum portati sumus I have been carried we have been carried
portatus es you have been carried portatus est he has been carried portati estis you all have been carried portati sunt they have been carried 55. Conjugate porto in the Pluperfect
Passive (Indicative ) with English portatus eram portati eramus I had been carried we had been carried portatus eras portati eratis
you had been carried portatus erat he had been carried you all had been carried portati erant they had been carried 56. Conjugate porto in the Future Perfect Passive (Indicative) with English.
portatus ero I shall have been carried portatus eris you will have been carried portatus erit he will have been carried portati erimus we shall have been carried
portati eritis yall will have been carried portati erunt they will have been carried 57. What are deponent verbs? Give some examples and translations. Deponent verbs are passive in form, but active in meaning. A deponent verb can be recognized in the vocabulary by its or ending
in the 1st principal part. 58. What is an infinitive? It is a verbal that is translated using to plus the verb meaning 59. What is a participle? *A participle is an adjective made from a verb, retaining attributes of both. *As a verb, it has tense & voice; it may take an object, and it may be modified by adverbs.
*As an adjective, it has gender, number and case, even degree, and it modifies a noun or substantive. 60. How do you recognize the Present Active Participle? What are the possible translations? Present stem of the verb with -ns or -nt + 3rd declension endings portans nominative portantem accusative, as with other cases carrying, while carrying
61. Decline the present active participle of the verb porto. portans portantis portanti portantem portante (neuter) portantes (portantia) portantium portantibus
portantes (portantia) portantibus 62. How do you recognize the Perfect Passive Participle? How do you translate it? The perfect passive participle is the 4th principal part of a verb. There are no special signals for this one. 1st & 2nd declension endings are used. (Deponent verbs do not have a perfect passive participle they have a perfect Active participle, which is their third and last principal part.)
portatus having been carried 63. How do you recognize the Future Active Participle? How do you translate it? The future active participle is the perfect passive participle stretched: participial stem + =ur plus 1st and 2nd declension endings. portaturus about to carry 64. How do you recognize the Future Passive Participle?
How do you translate it? By what other name is it called? B y The future passive participle has the present stem of the verb plus
-nd and w h 1st and 2nd declension endings. a t o t h e r Portandus to be carried
It is also called the gerundive. 65. What is the Gerundive? The gerundive is the future passive participle. 66. What is the Passive Periphrastic? Give an example and translate it. Include the Dative of Agent. Passive periphrastic is the gerundive (future passive participle) + a form of sum. It denotes necessity or obligation
portandum est It has to be carried Dative of Agent who does the action mihi portandum est It has to be carried by me. (I have to carry it.) 67. What is the ablative absolute? Give examples and translations. An ablative absolute is a Latin phrase that is loosely connected to its sentence, giving background information. It may be set off by commas, and does not modify any other word in the sentence. The two primary words of the construction are in the ablative case. Noun and participle:
arcu dedicato, with the arch having been dedicated Two nouns: Cogidubno rege, with Cogidubnus the king Noun and adjective: populi irati, with the people angry 68. How is the Present Passive Infinitive formed? Give an example from each conjugation. Present infinitive with final -e changed to =i portare (to carry) becomes portari (to be carried)
For third conjugation, the =ere is changed to -i mittere ( to send) becomes mitti (to be sent) See following slide for examples in each conjugation 68. Examples in each conjugation 1st conjugation portare becomes portari 2nd conjugation videre becomes videri 3rd conjugation ducere becomes duci 3rd io conjugation capere becomes capi 4th conjugation audire becomes audiri 69. Notice the subjunctive verb forms. Present
Imperfect portet ** videat, ducat, audiat portaret (present infinitive +endings) Pluperfect portavisset (perfect stem + isse + endings) Future Perfect portaverit ** ** not covered before stage 35 in the Cambridge series 70. Look over the subjunctive clauses: Purpose
Result Indirect Question Indirect Command Cum Circumstantial See next slide for examples 70. Subjunctive Clauses Purpose amici ad urbem ambulant ut spectaculum viderent. Salvius Memorem misit qui regem interficeret. Result tam peritus erat tibicen ut omnes eum laudarent. Indirect Question
Romani nesciebant quot hostes manerent. Indirect Command senex deam Sulem oravit ut morbum sanaret. Cum Circumstantial (cum meaning when) fur, cum amuletum e fonte extraxisset, attonitus erat. 71. What is a preposition? A preposition indicates the relative position between its object and another noun in the sentence.
72. What two cases do the Latin prepositions govern? accusative ablative 73. List several prepositions and give their meanings and the case each governs. + the Accusative: ad - toward
trans - across post - behind ante - in front of 74. List the Accusative Constructions and give an example of each. Duration of time: tres horas ambulaverunt. Place to which: domum redierunt. 75. List several prepositions and give their
meanings and the case each governs. + the Ablative: ab - away from e,ex - out of cum - with 76. List the Ablative Constructions and give an example of each. Means (What is used to carry out the action of the verb.) Salvius pugione vulneratus est. Manner (How the action of the verb was carried out.)
Cephalus venenum magn cum cur paravit. Accompaniment (Who was with whom.) Cogidubnus cum Salvio dicebat. Time (When something happened) Quintus in Londinio quarto die pervenit. Agent (Who carried out the action of a passive verb.) cena a Grumione cocta est. 77. Distinguish between in + the ablative case and in + the accusative case + the Ablative at rest
& Accusative: motion in -in into sub - under up under 78. Decline the personal pronoun in 1st, 2nd, 3rd person. Give the English meaning of each Latin word.
see next slides 1st, 79. Decline the personal pronoun in 2nd, 3rd person. Give the English meaning of each Latin word. singular nom. ego - I
plural nos - we gen. mei - of me nostrum, nostri - of us dat. mihi - to/for me acc. me - me abl.
nobis - to/for us nos - us me - by/with me us nobis - by/with 80. the personal pronoun in singular
2ndperson.. plural nom. tu - you gen. tui - of you vos - you vestrum, vestri - of you dat. tibi - to/for you vobis - to/for you
acc. te - you vos - you abl. vobis - by/with te - by/with you you 81. 3rd person personal pronoun
singular is eius ei eum eo ea eius ei eam ea
id eius ei id eo 81. 3rd person personal pronoun plural ei eorum eis
eos eis eae earum eis eas eis ea eorum eis ea
eis 82. Decline hic, and give the English hic haec huius huius huic huic hunc hanc hoc hc hoc hi hae haec huius
horum harum horum huic his his his hoc hos has haec hoc his his his This
83. Decline ille, and give the English ille illius illi illum illo illa illud illius illius illi illi illam illud ill illo
illi illorum illis illos illis That illae illa illarum illorum illis illis
illas illa illis illis 84. Know the indeclinables: -que, et, sed, autem, tamen, postquam, -ne, num, nonneetc -que - and et - and sed- but tamen - nevertheless autem however
84. Know the indeclinables: -que, et, sed, autem, tamen, postquam, -ne, num, nonneetc igitur therefore postquam - afterwards, after -ne =a ?-mark
num - expects a no answer nonne - expects a yes answer 85. Know the ?-words. quis, quid, ubi, quo, unde, quando, quot, cui, quocum, cur, etc... quis - who quot - how many quid - what cui - to whom ubi - where, when cur - why quo - to where quando - when unde- from where
quocum - with whom 86. Be able to recognize and translate the vocative case noun. Marcus: Marce filius: fili Caecilius: Caecili meus: mi 87. Be able to recognize and translate
the imperative mood verb. voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatum voca! call! vocate! you all call! (87. Negative Commands) nolo in the imperative mood + infinitive of the action = do not wish (to___ )
Singular: noli dicere Plural: nolite dicere 88. Remember the special forms: placet + dative case placetne tibi? - que pueri puellaeque 89. Please gather up your old vocabulary pages and worksheet pages. Study the meanings of the Latin words and the English words
derived from them. 90. Make a list of the characters you have met since stages 28 through 34 and write few notes about each. 91. Look over the culture information in the worksheet packets. 92. Study the culture topics: Archeological and Literary Evidence Inscriptions Origins of Rome
Roman Forum Masada Roman Engineering City of Rome Roman Society Roman Beliefs Roman Entertainment Freedmen and Freedwomen 93. Practice translating the stories in stage 34. You will have to translate on the final exam. Fortunam bonam habeas!
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